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Utah Beach on D-Day

Utah Beach on D-Day


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The D-Day Companion, ed. Jane Penrose. A selection of thirteen separate essays on different aspects of the D-Day lands, from the initial planning to post-war memorials; this is an excellent piece of work that sets the D-Day landings firmly in context. An excellent starting point for anyone who wants to learn more about Operation Overlord, but its wide range of topics means it is likely to be of value to anyone with an interest in the subject. [see more]


Teddy Roosevelt, Jr.: The Toughest Old Man in WWII

Imagine it is D-Day, June 6, 1944, and you are a young private.

You are hitting Utah Beach in the very first wave, into the teeth of the German army, against a rainfall of enemy gunfire, artillery shrapnel and gore. You are filled with fear.

And there on the beach in front of you, stands an old man. An American brigadier general — bull frog-voiced, pop-eyed, 5-foot-8 inches tall, and directing traffic with his cane. Calm as a man can be in combat, he is Ted Roosevelt, Jr., the son of the famous president and the only general on the beach (Jr. was actually technically Teddy Roosevelt, III, but had adopted the “Jr.” moniker from boyhood — his father having never claimed it himself).

At age 56, he had volunteered to be on the landing boats in order to give the young troops reassurance and to arm them with his same fortitude and courage.

How many invasions had Ted Jr. participated in during the first half of the Century? Basically, all of them. As a combat officer in the 26th Regiment of the First Division (later to be known as the “Big Red One”) during World War I, Ted Jr. helped lead the American entry into France. In 1941, he was back again to help lead the same regiment for Project Torch in the amphibious invasion of North Africa during World War II. He battled into Sicily. He was with the Fourth Division at the tip of the spear on D-Day.

Ted Jr. was an unusual solder in many ways. He carried a copy of Pilgrim’s Progress into combat to read during the lulls. He would write detailed letters home about each battle to his beloved wife, Eleanor. Legend has it, that when he and the Utah Beach landing troops realized they had been dropped one mile away from their designated site, it was Ted Jr. who studied the map and calmly opined, “We’ll start the war from here.”

Ted Jr. grew up in wealth on Sagamore Hill, one of four brothers (Ted, Archie, Kermit and Quentin) and two sisters (Ethel and older half-sister Alice). His famous father would lead the children on “point to point” rambles through woods and swamps. No obstacle could be evaded by going around it each challenge had to be faced head-on and climbed, swum, or crawled there as it stood.

President Teddy Roosevelt had grown up with a unspoken shame that his own father had purchased his way out of Civil War service—as was allowed at that time. He overcame that sense by volunteering for the Spanish American War and joining in the famous charge up San Juan Hill with his fellow Rough Riders.

Teddy’s sons were schooled in that same mindset of duty and military obligation— and the family paid a heavy price. The youngest son, Quentin, was shot down and died as a fighter pilot in World War I. Kermit served in World War I and II, and ultimately committed suicide. Archie retired with 100 percent disability after being shot in the knee in World War I but, like Ted Jr., insisted on coming back for World War II. Archie served in New Guinea, where he was disabled (but survived) again, and was awarded the Silver Star with three oak clusters.

Ted Jr.’s own son, Quentin, was also in the first D-Day wave, landing on Omaha Beach. He survived, only to die in a plane crash in China several years later. Kermit’s son, Kermit Jr., led the CIA action to restore the Shah of Iran, seeking to avoid the Communist alternative.

Ted Jr. himself survived the D-Day landing, but died in France five weeks later— on July 12, 1944—from a heart attack. He was awarded the Medal of Honor, and later so was his father, President Roosevelt. They, along with Arthur and Douglas McArthur, became the only father and sons to ever both win a Medal of Honor. Ted Jr. is buried in Colleville-sur-Mer, France, alongside his younger brother, Quentin.

Between World War I and World War II, Ted Jr. sought major political office without success. He reached the New York State legislature and founded the American Legion, but lost the New York governor’s race in 1924 against Al Smith this was a time when New York was the most populous state and its governorship the best route to the presidency. Fifth cousin Franklin won that same governorship in 1928. (“Our side of the family has the looks”, FDR’s mother allegedly opined.)

President Roosevelt was described as a dilettante soldier and a first rate politician, while Ted Jr. was described as a dilettante politician and a first rate soldier. Between elections, Ted Jr. served as governor general of Puerto Rico and the Philippines, and joined brother Kermit to hunt the ovis poli mountain goat in Kashmir for Chicago’s Field Museum, and to seek out (and find) the then-elusive panda species in the wilds of Szechuan China.

President Roosevelt may have been both proud and regretful of his militaristic impact on his sons. After publicly addressing his son Quentin’s death with stoicism, Teddy and his wife Edith reportedly rowed far out into Oyster Bay in a small boat to mourn in private. When tempted by an offer to have a special monument in France built for Quentin, Teddy was asked by his equally noble wife, “And who will build the monument for all the other sons who died?”

July 12, 2017 marks the anniversary of Ted Roosevelt Jr.’s death. The story of Ted Jr. and his brothers are told in the recent book His Father’s Son by Tim Brady.

It is a good time to honor their memory and the memory of so many others that have faced danger with fortitude. They teach us to show courage and nobility against hard odds.

K.S. Bruce writes the “In This Corner” column of opinion (and occasional humor) for RealClearLife.

This article was featured in theInsideHook newsletter. Sign up now.


Taking the Guns Outside Ste. Marie-du-Mont

Winters continued gathering men until Company E had 11 troopers as part of the 2nd Battalion, which had only 80 men. The soldiers headed toward the French town of Ste. Marie-du-Mont, where the battalion had discovered a battery of four German 105mm cannon. Those guns, manned by no less than 130 men, were blasting into the troops of the Fourth Infantry Division landing on Utah Beach. The job of taking the guns went to E Company.

Winters went to work. After explaining to his men that they were about to make a frontal assault on the guns, he set up two machine guns to provide covering fire and moved his men forward to their jump-off positions. Just as he crawled forward to lead his men, Winters spotted a German helmet moving down a trench. He fired his M-1 rifle, killing the German.

A jumpmaster checks the reserve ‘chutes and equipment of paratroopers about to board a C-47. Note that a military censor has obscured the unit patches on the men’s left sleeves.

Winters’ men began firing into the German positions from three directions. “Follow me!” he shouted for the second time that morning as his assault team charged. The Airborne troops chased the Germans from their positions with a hail of gunfire and hand grenades. Winters, with two other soldiers, cut down four Germans on the run. Realizing that the Germans would probably launch a counterattack, Winters flopped down into the enemy trench where he came across two Germans setting up a machine gun. “I got in the first shot and hit the gunner in the hip the second caught the other boy in the shoulder.”


The Shepherd of Utah Beach

The words bring to mind images of hundreds of landing craft, machines, and American fighting forces landing on the beaches of faraway places. D-Day was the largest seaborne invasion in modern history. Thousands of soldiers, sailors, and airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Forces invaded Normandy to liberate Western Europe during World War II.

This flag, which flew aboard LCC 60 on D-Day, was donated by Bert Kreuk and Theo Schols to the people of the United States in memory of the service and sacrifices made by all Americans in the liberation of Europe during World War II.

In the early hours of D-Day, a massive naval armada floated several miles off the enemy-held coast of France. The ships would soon deliver soldiers to five beaches. Aboard the ships, orders bellowed over loudspeakers, telling soldiers to stand by and prepare to board an array of landing craft to bring them to shore.

A few specialized ships, called “Landing Craft, Control” or “LCC,” would guide the vessels carrying tanks and personnel to the correct sectors of the beaches and help control the movement as vessel after vessel approached the shore.

This flag flew aboard LCC 60, a vessel that guided waves of swimming tanks and landing craft to the “Tare Green” and “Uncle Red” sectors of Utah Beach.

Landing Craft, Control (LCC) were 56 feet long and cruised at a maximum speed of 13.5 knots, about the size of many modern sport fishing boats. They had practically no creature comforts for their 14-person crew, and the little craft sported considerable specialized equipment, including radar and radio transmitters, direction finders, and underwater sound equipment. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

LCC 60 was captained by a 26-year-old English major from Oskaloosa, Iowa: Lieutenant (junior grade) Howard Vander Beek. His orders were to move LCC 60 into its position as a secondary control ship, providing backup to the primary control ship and guiding landing craft to “Tare Green.”

As they waited, Vander Beek and his crew heard enemy shellfire directed at them. Suddenly, the primary control vessel for “Uncle Red” sank—victim of an enemy sea mine. Moments later, in LCC 60’s sector, a landing craft carrying tanks struck a sea mine and sank.

Meanwhile, a deafening roar swept the area as American bomber aircraft hammered the beaches. Naval gunfire erupted, with dust and smoke soon enveloping the entire coastline ahead of LCC 60.

Vander Beek received word that his craft’s counterpart in “Uncle Red,” LCC 80, was unable to maneuver after a buoy line fouled the propeller. The primary control ship for “Tare Green” directed LCC 60 to shepherd all the invading ships to shore in “Uncle Red” as well as continue providing support for “Tare Green.”

As the sun began to rise, Vander Beek turned to see what he called “the greatest armada the world had ever known, the greatest it would ever know” behind him.

He later recalled the “many great, gray ships majestically poised in their positions larger numbers of unwieldy landing vessels heaved by the heavy sea and countless numbers of smaller amphibious craft tossed mercilessly by the waves.”

Then the aquatic invasion began.

Soldiers disembarking on Utah Beach. Courtesy of the Conseil Régional de Basse-Normandie / National Archives.

LCC 60 helped move the tank landing craft in closer, then turned to control duties in “Uncle Red,” directing waves of tanks and men ashore.

Unbeknownst to the men of LCC 60, the combination of limited visibility with a strong ocean current and winds caused the first wave of landing craft they directed to come ashore about 1,000 to 1,500 yards south of the intended landing zone. Fortunately, this section of the beach had few obstacles and even fewer defenders. Among the men landing on that section of beach was Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt Jr., Assistant Division Commander of the Fourth Infantry. He scouted the landing area and declared, “We’ll start the war from right here!”

Crew of LCC 60. Courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

The LCC 60 was relieved of her duties that afternoon. Vander Beek was summoned to brief senior leaders and war correspondents on the landings. After answering their questions, he returned to LCC 60 and spent the remainder of the day shuttling personnel from ship to ship. “Finally, somehow, the day that had begun an eternity before back in England ended sometime before the sun set,” he recalled.

A circular hole found in the blue field is believed to have been made by an enemy machine gun bullet off Utah Beach.

In published recollections of his wartime experiences, Vander Beek never mentions his one souvenir of D-Day: LCC 60’s flag. The 48-star flag, its leading edge tattered and worn from ocean winds, was used at D-Day and again in a later invasion of Southern France, Operation Dragoon. A circular hole found in the blue field is believed to have been made by an enemy machine gun bullet off Utah Beach.

Vander Beek later removed the flag and kept it safely in his home until his death in 2014.

Flags do many things: they tell stories about our nation’s battle for independence, they symbolize sacrifices made, and they often unite the nation during key historic moments. Vander Beek understood this. In his memoir, describing the flags of D-Day, he wrote, “Flashes of color lifted our spirits, particularly those of the American flag waving majestically over the beach. Knowing that it had been raised by men whom we had led in the assault fed our pride.”

This year, as we commemorate the 75th anniversary of D-Day, we also celebrate the homecoming of this important flag as it joins the National Museum of American History’s collections.

Jennifer Jones is a curator in the Office of Curatorial Affairs.

Frank Blazich Jr. is a curator in the Division of Political and Military History.


Utah Beach on D-Day - History

General Eisenhower gives the order of the day "Full victory - Nothing else" to paratroopers in England just before they board airplanes in the first D-Day assault.

American troops invading Normandy.

At Utah Beach, members of an American landing party help others whose landing craft was sunk by the Germans off the coast of France. The survivors reached Utah Beach, near Cherbourg, by using a life raft.

Crossed rifles in the sand placed as a tribute to this fallen soldier.

Medics help an injured American soldier.

American assault troops of the 16th Infantry Regiment, injured while storming Omaha Beach, wait by the Chalk Cliffs for evacuation to a field hospital for further medical treatment. Collville-sur-Mer, Normandy.

(Photo credits: U.S. National Archives)

Terms of use: Private home/school non-commercial, non-Internet re-usage only is allowed of any text, graphics, photos, audio clips, other electronic files or materials from The History Place.


1. Sword

Landing on Sword Beach Millin is in the foreground at the right Lovat is wading through the water to the right of the column

Sword Beach, near the mouth of the River Orne, was stormed by the 3 rd Division of the British 1 st Corps. Compared with the others, they had a relatively easy landing. Within an hour they had taken control of the beach and begun heading inland.

It was then that the troops from Sword found themselves challenged. The British role in the first days of the invasion was to halt and destroy the German Panzer troops around the city of Caen. To do this, the troops landing at Juno and Sword needed to link up with the 6 th Airborne, who had landed around the Orne.

Two miles from Sword Beach, they were stopped in their tracks. The 21 st Panzers, equipped with 88mm self-propelled guns and supported by German infantry, started putting up stiff resistance. The British 3 rd Division had been trained extensively for fighting on the beaches, but now found itself fighting inland. It took them eight hours to adjust, push through the Germans, and reach the 6 th Airborne.

Nigel Cawthorne (2004), Turning the Tide: Decisive Battles of the Second World War.


An Untraditional Path to Service

Born in 1887 the eldest son of future President Teddy Roosevelt, Theodore was given his father’s namesake and all the burden of living up to it. However, his father would also impress upon him the need for military training and for every man to be prepared to do his part when the time should come.

Roosevelt would go on to attend Harvard and after graduating in 1909, he entered the business world. Proving to be highly skilled, he was able to build quite a personal fortune prior to World War 1 which might have given other men a little more incentive to sit out the war if possible. But other men didn’t have to call the famed Rough Rider of San Juan Hill daddy.

In 1915, the US military had set up a summer camp for business and professional men to receive military training at their own expense. This was used as a method to assess and increase military readiness as war erupted throughout Europe and would prove essential in building a junior officer’s corps for a rapidly expanding army needed to fight World War 1. Three of Teddy’s 4 sons were graduates of this camp and were offered commissions when the US joined the war.

in his younger days as Assistant Secretary To The Navy

Now a Major, Roosevelt would find himself in command of a battalion in the war and become notorious for leading from the front with his men. He took it upon himself to see after the welfare of his men and personally purchased combat boots for his battalion out of his great personal wealth.

He was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and was given command of the 26 th Regiment in the First Division. During the summer of 1918, he was seriously wounded and gassed at Soissons close to the same time younger brother Quentin was killed in combat. By war’s end, Roosevelt had received the Distinguished Service Cross as well as the French Chevalier Legion d’honneur.


Contents

Utah Beach aerial photographs

The landing was planned in four waves. The first consisted of 20 Higgins boats or LCVPs, each carrying a 30-man assault team from the 8th Infantry Regiment. The 10 craft on the right were to land on Tare Green Beach, opposite the strong-point at les Dunes de Varreville. The 10 craft on the left were intended for Uncle Red Beach, 1,000 yards (900 m) farther south. The entire operation was timed against the touchdown of this first assault wave, which was scheduled to take place at 06:30 am. Eight LCTs (Landing crafts, tanks), each carrying four amphibious DD Tanks, were scheduled to land at the same time or as soon thereafter as possible.

The second wave consisted of another 32 Higgins boats with additional troops of the two assault battalions, some combat engineers, and also eight naval demolition teams that were to clear the beach of underwater obstacles.

The third wave, timed for H plus 15 minutes, contained eight more Higgins Boats carrying DD tanks.

It was followed within two minutes by the fourth wave, mainly detachments of the 237th and 299th Combat Engineer Battalions, to clear the beaches between high- and low-water marks.

D-Day assault map of the Normandy region and the north-western coast of France. Utah Beach and Omaha Beach are separated by the Douve River, whose mouth is clear in the coastline notch (or "corner") of the map.


One of D-Day’s most famous, heroic assaults may have been unnecessary

Pointe du Hoc, France — Seventy-five years ago Thursday, a battalion of elite U.S. Army Rangers scaled the 100-foot promontory here overlooking Omaha Beach, with nothing more than ropes and rickety ladders. As enemy gunfire and grenades rained down, picking them off as they climbed, the Rangers managed to secure the strategic high ground and silence a small battery of long-range German guns that had been moved inland.

The battle for Pointe du Hoc became one of the most heroic moments of the D-Day invasion. It was lionized by the legendary Hollywood film “The Longest Day” and by President Ronald Reagan, who stood on this hallowed ground to one of his most famous speeches, extolling the bravery of the “Boys of Pointe du Hoc” on the 40th anniversary of the largest amphibious assault in the world’s history.

But a little more than three miles down the windswept Normandy coastline, an archaeological dig on a vast swath of farmland is starting to tell another story about what took place that day. A World War II artifact collector and historian accidentally stumbled upon a massive German artillery installation that was buried after the invasion. His discovery, along with a trove of declassified U.S. and British military documents, threatens to alter the narrative of Pointe du Hoc and its importance as a military objective during the D-Day invasion.

Only now are historians beginning to reckon with the implications. Depending on which is talking, the discovery of what is known as “Maisy Battery” either calls into question the wisdom of the entire Pointe du Hoc operation or is simply one more footnote in a war full of footnotes.

One thing is certain: The mythology of Pointe du Hoc is firmly established. Those who challenge the story do so at their own peril.

“Historians always shatter the idol, but let me tell you, when they do, they get a lot of pushback and angry emails in the middle of the night,” said Rob Citino, the senior historian at the National World War II Museum in New Orleans who has written 10 books about the war and only recently learned about Maisy Battery. “Pointe du Hoc is such sacred ground, it’s like bringing someone to Gettysburg and saying, ‘Actually, there was a much bigger battle fought just a few miles away.’ ”

The artifact collector and historian, Gary Sterne, 55, has received nothing but pushback since he found a map at a military flea market 15 years ago that led him to the discovery of Maisy Battery, a complex that covers 144 acres one mile inland between Omaha and Utah beaches — the prime objectives of the U.S. invasion forces. He has published a two-volume, 1,160-page encyclopedia full of photographs, military documents and interviews with Army Rangers who climbed the cliffs of Pointe du Hoc.

His startling conclusion: The assault was unnecessary, the commander of the U.S. Army Ranger unit failed to follow orders, putting his men directly in harm’s way, and U.S. military leaders should have targeted Maisy and its battery of heavy artillery guns instead of Pointe du Hoc, which the Germans had largely abandoned by the time of the Normandy invasion.

“I have nothing but respect for the Rangers and what they did at Pointe du Hoc,” Sterne said in a recent interview from his home in England. “It was truly heroic. But the facts are the facts.”

Sterne has been collecting military memorabilia since he was child growing up near Manchester, England. It became a full-time pursuit after he purchased a home in Normandy. In 2004, he traveled to Louisville to attend one of the largest military flea markets in the world.

Beneath one of the 5,000 tables set up there, Sterne spotted a cardboard box. Inside was the complete uniform of a U.S. Army soldier who had fought in WWII. Sterne bought it for $180. Inside one of the pockets was a map of Normandy. The map was marked with hand-drawn circles, each with an “X” in the middle, and the words: “Areas of High Resistance.”

Sterne was confused. He knew the precise locations of those areas.

“I thought, ‘There’s nothing there. It’s just fields,’” Sterne recalled.

Back in Normandy, Sterne drove to the fields and started to walk through the tall grass. He came across a clearing and a large slab of concrete. At first he thought he had found the foundation of a building destroyed long ago. As he stepped off the slab, he tripped over a small chimney protruding from the concrete.

He was standing on the roof of a building, not the floor.

“I thought, hang on a minute,” Sterne said. “It was a lightbulb moment.”

Sterne and his brother grabbed some shovels and began to dig. They unearthed a perfectly preserved, bombproof German ammunition bunker. He and his son, Dan, have been digging ever since, uncovering bunkers and barracks and large concrete gun placements. They discovered a field hospital, a command and control center, evidence that an SS squad was embedded at the battery and the skeleton of a German soldier. All of it was buried by Allied forces after the invasion and Maisy was lost to history.

For nearly two years, Sterne kept his discovery a secret as he purchased dozens of tracts of land from their owners, quietly piecing together vast sections of Maisy for a World War II museum. When he went public with his findings in 2006 and opened the site to the public a year later, he said the backlash was ferocious. Other historians labeled him an opportunist, a fabulist, a “Mad Englishman.”

Sterne returned fire. He argued that Maisy, not Pointe du Hoc, should have been a primary target on D-Day. The guns at Maisy, he noted, were still firing three days after the invasion and capable of striking positions on Utah Beach, about five miles away. What he said next amounted to heresy in the military world.

Based on previously secret intelligence and field reports he obtained from military archives in the United States and Britain, Sterne said the 2nd Ranger Battalion commander of the Pointe du Hoc mission, Lt. Col James E. Rudder, knew that the Germans had removed their guns from Pointe du Hoc as the D-Day invasion neared. When Rudder and his men reached the top of Pointe du Hoc on June 6, 1944, the guns were gone, some of them replaced with long wooden telephone poles resembling artillery cannons. The real guns had been moved inland. The Rangers found five guns that had been moved from Pointe du Hoc that morning and disabled them with thermite grenades.


9th Infantry Division in WWII

– The Battle for Normandy –

After training in England in 1944, the 9th Infantry Division was to prepare for something big.
Orders were vague, and the men trained for months. By April 2nd, with all leaves and furloughs cleared up, the training pace was accelerated by a field problem on Easter Sunday. On May 27th at 06:30 the Division was put on a six hour alert status. The men knew something was about to happen. There had been GI movies, USO shows, PX supplies, the Red Cross tea wagon, signs in English, mild-and-bitters, pubs and dances, and the not-so surprising rediscovery that the guidebooks don’t tell the whole story. The Ninth Division began moving to marshalling areas on Saturday afternoon on June 3rd, 1944. Men found sleep difficult during the night of June 5th, under the ceaseless drone of unseen planes. By 02:30, when the first units were alerted, everybody knew…

This was D-Day, the Normandy Invasion!

Because the 9th Infantry Division went through several battles before, they did not land on the beaches during D-Day when the invasion of the French continent began in the early morning of June 6th, 1944. The 9th Infantry hit the Normandy beach on D plus 4, on June 10th, as one of the two U.S. Infantry Divisions on the beachhead with previous combat experience, a fact fully appreciated by higher commanders and military observers.

Men of the 9th Infantry Division seek cover at the seawall on Utah beach in 1944. The wall is still there today.

Unloading of men and equipment had hardly been completed when the 39th Combat Team, the “Anything, Anywhere, Anytime — Bar Nothing!” boys of Colonel “Paddy” Flint, were attached to the 4th Infantry Division to clean up the east coast of the peninsula. Following capture of Quineville, which at that time constituted the farthest Allied advance to the north, the 39th returned to Division control, and the 9th was ready to write one of the most glorious chapters in its history. The attack was swift and perfectly executed. Each time the enemy dropped back, the 9th Division hit him again. Having driven across the Douve River, and although north and south flanks were exposed, the 47th and the 60th Infantry Regiments reached the east coast near St. Lo, D’Ourville and Barneville early on June 17th 1944.

The Cotentin Peninsula was cut, but the enemy made a desperate attempt to break out near St. Jacques de Nehou. Artillery and a terrific mortar concentration massacred this force. The 9th then turned north toward Cherbourg. The 39th Regiment went through Octeville while the 47th Regiment seized the western half of the town and the arsenal. Meanwhile the 60th Regiment was protecting the left flank and preparing for an attack up the cape. During this campaign the 9th Division captured Lieutenant General Karl Wilhelm von Schlieben and Rear Admiral Hennecke, senior enemy Army and Navy commanders of the Cherbourg area. They were immediately brought to the Division CP where ensued a bit of repartee which shortly became famous.

Robert Capa, Life magazine photographer, appeared at the Division commander’s tent to take pictures of the captured officers. But the Germans definitely had other notions. Von Schlieben was particularly difficult. “I am tired of this picture taking,” he snapped.
Capa, who speaks German, sighed and lowered his camera momentarily. “I too, am tired General,” he pointed out, “I have to take pictures of so many captured German generals!”

One of Robert Capa’s Pictures of the German General Karl Von Schlieben (left) and 9th Infantry Division General Manton S. Eddy (right) near Cherbourg in 1944.

While other forces occupied Cherbourg, the 9th Division cleaned up the Cap de la Hague by July 1st, 1944. The 9th Infantry Division had accomplished the opening chapter of the invasion drama.



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