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At some point, the Aegina Mint was built by Pheidon of Argos on the authority of Ephorus. Produced at the mint were several coins composed of silver, and in one known instance, electrum. These coins became locally known as the Aeginetic drachm. The coins from Aegina were uniform of type, similar to the Athenian coins, characterizing that the coins were not a local currency, but used throughout Ancient Greece. Based on the weights of exceptionally heavy specimens, it is hypothesized that the original Aeginetic stater weighed over 200 grams. As well as staters, drachms, obols, and tetartemorions were also produced on Aegina.
The early Aeginetic coins depicted a sea turtle (Chelone caouana) with a plain shell, and later with dots, on the obverse. The reverse of these early coins typically showed an incuse square divided into hollowed-out triangles. This was later changed to having three triskeles consisting of human legs with a boss in the center. Around 404 BC, for some reason, the sea turtle was replaced by a tortoise ( Testudo graeca ), sometimes accompanied with an "A" to the left and "I" to the right on the larger denominations. The reverse of these new coins featured a square divided into four parts, with one, in turn, being divided into two triangles. Typically, across the top two squares, it would read "ΑΙΓ" or "ΑΙΓI", an abbreviation for "AEGINA" ("ΑΙΓINA"), while one of the bottom squares depicted a dolphin . Displayed on the obverse of the lower denominations, which became composed of bronze, were dolphins with an "A" in the midst.
In the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, both sides of the coins were altered drastically, and many different coin designs were introduced. On the obverse of one of the coins was a legend reading, "ΑΙΓINA", and a prow of a galley , while the reverse depicted a ram 's head. Another depicted a bucranium and "A I" on the obverse, with a dolphin and "A I" on the reverse. After this came another coin, which depicted a head of Zeus on the obverse, with Apollo holding a bow and branch , and a legend reading, "ΑΙ ΓΙ ΝΙ" on the reverse.
During the reign of Septimius Severus over the Roman Empire from 193 to 211, a number of Aeginetic coins were minted. All of these featured Severus on the obverse, though the reverse varied. One coin depicted Hermes carrying a ram, while others showed the port of Aegina, a draped Aphrodite holding a branch and apple , a god standing by Zeus, Zeus holding an eagle and fulmen, seated Aeacus , etc.
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Aegina Silver Stater - History
Aegina (Aigina) is an island in Saronic Gulf located off southeastern Greece. Island was settled by Dorians around 900 BCE. Aegina was named after the daughter of Greek river god Asopos. First Greek coins were believed to be made in Aegina around 595 BCE. Island of Siphnos in the Aegean sea was believed to be the source of silver for making Aeginetan coins. Aegina was an independent City State in the 6th century BCE with great maritime trade and tradition. Aegianetans probably chose sea turtle as the symbol on the coins reflecting their maritime history. These Aeginetan chelones also known as turtles had a wide circulation in the mediterranean region till owls of Athens slowly displaced them as a standard coins in the late 5th century BCE. In 4th century BCE, Aegianetans changed design on their coins from Sea turtle to land dwelling Tortois. Some scholars ascribe this change to loss of supremacy of sea trade by the islanders to other greek City States.
Aegina Stater 550-500 BCE
obverse turtle with thin collar.
Aegina Stater 530-510 BCE
Punch with eight pronged design produced eight triangles on the reverse.
With heavy use of the punch, the prongs eventually broke or clogged, producing filled incuses like the above example.
Aegina Stater c.510 BCE
Reverse punch is an incuse of an eight pronged design which produced eight triangles on the reverse.
Aiginetan Stater c.500-480 BCE
Obverse design have a row of dots at the collar with a single row of dots down its carapace and known as 'T-back turtles'.
Aiginetan Stater c. 455-446 BCE
Reverse punch is an incuse.
Aiginetan Stater c. 457-431 BCE
Reverse punch is an incuse
Aegina Silver Stater - History
Ancient coin jewelry offerings include authentic ancient Greek coin jewelry and authentic ancient Roman coin jewelry. Ancient coins are fascinating historical artifacts and make excellent pieces of jewelry when mounted in our high quality gold bezels.
Ancient Greek coin jewelry offerings include the popular Alexander the Great, Boy on a Dolphin, Athens Owl, Pegasus, Artemis, Aegina Turtle, Sikyon Dove, and Shekel of Tyre coins minted at the ancient Greek mints located in Macedon, Taras, Athens, Corinth, Sikyon, and the Phoenician city of Tyre. Typical Greek coin denominations are the tetradrachm, drachm, didrachm, hemidrachm, and stater, all of which are available on the web site.
Ancient Roman coin jewelry offerings include the Caesar and Roma denarius coins, which along with their Greek predecessors, are over 2000 years old, many struck before the birth of Christ. Amazingly, these authentic artifacts are well detailed and nicely preserved.
Franchise Tax Board
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Employment Development Department
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California Tax Service Center
Provides a one-stop shop for tax assistance, including information about income tax, payroll tax, sales & use tax, and other taxes and fees for businesses.
We here at HistoryLink are greatly saddened by the death of our dear friend Cassandra Tate, who we have had the pleasure of working with for more than 20 years. We are truly going to miss her joy, her sparkling wit, her passion for researching and writing history, and -- most of all -- the kind and peaceful friendship she shared with us all.
Cassandra was born in Idaho but grew up in Seattle, where she developed an interest in journalism. After spending a year at UW, she headed out on her own and worked as a reporter for various newspapers in Idaho and Nevada, where she met her husband, Glenn Drosendahl. After receiving a year-long Nieman Fellowship at Harvard, she returned to Seattle with Glenn and their daughter, Linnea, and worked at several local newspapers before returning to UW to get a Ph.D. at age 50. She turned her doctoral dissertation into her first book, Cigarette Wars: Triumph of "The Little White Slaver," published by Oxford University Press in 1999.
In 1998 Cassandra became one of the first members of our writing team, and she wrote several essays in preparation for our launch. Over the years since, she wrote 217 essays for HistoryLink on such topics as gold rushes, the Bonneville Power Administration, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Washington State University, abortion reform, and thumbnail histories of Seattle's Columbia City, West Seattle, and West Seattle Junction neighborhoods.
Cassandra also wrote many excellent and meticulously researched biographical articles. Some of the many people she wrote about include Wanapum spiritual leader Smohalla, geologist J Harlan Bretz, philanthropist Patsy Collins, environmentalists Joan Crooks and Hazel Wolf, activist Jim Ellis and his brother John Ellis, artists Michael Spafford and Elizabeth Sandvig, musician Ray Charles, actresses Frances Farmer and Peg Phillips, theater directors Glenn Hughes and Burton and Florence James, author Ivan Doig, astronaut Bonnie Dunbar, doctors Lester Sauvage and A. Frans Koome, Watergate co-conspirator John Ehrlichman, Seattle mayors Robert Moran and Gordon Clinton, King County Executive Ron Sims, state senator Bob Grieve, Congresswoman Catherine May, and Governor Dan Evans and his wife, Nancy.
One of our favorite stories Cassandra wrote was about the Three Kichis, Japanese castaways who ran aground on the northernmost tip of the Olympic Peninsula in 1834. Other favorites include her tour of Ice Age floods, her analysis of busing in the Seattle School district, her history of cigarette prohibition in Washington, her four-part history of the Seattle YMCA, her look back at Seattle's Lusty Lady 'panoram,' and her own personal account of seeing Elvis at Sicks' Stadium when she was 12 year old.
And finally, one topic that greatly interested Cassandra was the story of Protestant missionaries Narcissa and Marcus Whitman, who were attacked and killed by Cayuse Indians in 1834. After years of deep research, she turned this story into an acclaimed book, "Unsettled Ground: The Whitman Massacre and its Shifting Legacy in the American West." The book was published as Cassandra was nine months into her struggle with fallopian-tube cancer, but she still promoted it through virtual book readings and discussions. We are so grateful that she lived to tell this story, and to enjoy the book's stellar reviews.
News Then, History Now
Rails Across the Nation
On June 17, 1884, the first Northern Pacific train running between Tacoma and Seattle raised Seattle's hopes of a reliable transcontinental rail link, but the line proved to be a bust. The city turned its sights to James J. Hill, and after granting him a waterfront right-of-way and other concessions, the first Great Northern passenger train left Seattle for St. Paul, Minnesota on June 18, 1893.
On June 19, 1890, African Americans from Tacoma and Seattle, many of them former slaves, gathered in Kent to celebrate the area's first Juneteenth. June 19, 1865, was the date news of Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation finally reached Texas slaves.
A Daughter's Admiration
In 1909 Sonora Smart Dodd sat in a Spokane church listening to a sermon about motherhood. Having been raised with five younger brothers by her widowed father, Dodd felt that fatherhood also deserved a "place in the sun," and she took it upon herself to advocate a special day for dads. After receiving an enthusiastic endorsement from the Spokane Ministerial Alliance and the YMCA, the first Father's Day was celebrated in Spokane on June 19, 1910. The concept spread, and by the 1920s Father's Day was commonly observed throughout the country.
On June 17, 1931, Ella Higginson became Washington state's first poet laureate in a ceremony hosted by the Washington State Federation of Women's Clubs. Two decades earlier, Higginson served as campaign manager for Frances Axtell, who was one of the first two women elected to serve in the Washington State Legislature.
Into the Fray
On June 20, 1942, a Japanese submarine sank the freighter Fort Camosun near Cape Flattery, but with no loss of life. The next day, the same submarine attacked Fort Stevens at the mouth of the Columbia River, making it the only military installation in the continental United States to be shelled during the war.
June 23 marks the opening day of three major civic institutions in Seattle: Volunteer Park's Seattle Art Museum in 1933 the Washington State Convention & Trade Center in 1988 and the Experience Music Project -- now MoPOP -- in 2000.
Aegina Silver Stater - History
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About the United States Mint
The mission of the U.S. Mint is to serve the American people by manufacturing and distributing circulating, precious metal and collectible coins and national medals, and providing security over assets entrusted to us.
Since our institution’s founding in 1792, the Mint has taken great pride in rendering the story of our nation in coins. To hold a coin or medal produced by the Mint is to connect to the founding principles of our nation and the makings of our economy.
The Mint is the nation’s sole manufacturer of legal tender coinage and is responsible for producing circulating coinage for the nation to conduct its trade and commerce.
The Mint also produces coin-related products, including proof, uncirculated, and commemorative coins Congressional Gold Medals and silver and gold bullion coins. The Mint’s programs are self-sustaining and operate at no cost to the taxpayer.
Browse our History section to learn about the Mint’s history as one of the oldest agencies in the federal government.
The Ku Klux Klan In Washington State
Unidentified Klansman in Seattle in 1923. Photo from the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, courtesy of the Seattle Museum of History and Industry. (Click the image above to go to a gallery of rare photographs of Northwest Klan activities.)
Mass Rallies and Public Spectacles
A float in a KKK parade in Bellingham, WA in 1926. The float was barred from the city's Tulip Festival, but Whatcom County continued to be a strong base of support for the State KKK through the 1920s. Photo courtesy of the Whatcom County Historical Society.
"KKK Wedding" in Sedro Wooley, Washington, June 16, 1926. Photo courtesy of the Skagit River Journal.
A forty-foot electric cross displayed at a KKK rally outside Seattle in 1923. Photo courtesy of the Washington State Historical Society.
Newspaper: The Watcher on the Tower
Front cover of the Washington State KKK monthly publication, The Watcher on the Tower, circa 1923. The center features Uncle Sam, flanked by American Presidents, and wearing a Klan robe. Courtesy of the Washington State Archives. (Click the image above to go to a gallery of articles from The Watcher on the Tower.)
This special section of the Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project documents the history of Washington State&rsquos 1920s chapter of the most infamous white supremacist organization in American history, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
The Washington State Klan during the 1920s was part of the second of three waves of KKK activity in America. The second KKK was founded in 1915 and gained significant membership immediately following World War I. Though short-lived, it was a powerful anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, anti-radical, white supremacist organization that promoted &ldquo100 percent Americanism.&rdquo The second KKK claimed over 4 million members across the country briefly dominated state legislatures of Colorado, Indiana, and Oregon and in 1924 shaped presidential politics and helped pressure politicians to pass the most severe immigration restriction in the history of the United States. Following immigration restriction and a series of leadership scandals, the second KKK collapsed and was largely moribund by 1928.
The second KKK was a mass movement that invoked the memory of and built upon the first KKK, which was a terrorist organization founded by white supremacists in the U.S. South. The first KKK&rsquos violent &ldquonight riding&rdquo&ndash in which hooded vigilantes used lynchings, whippings, and torture to intimidate recently freed slaves and their white allies &ndash played a crucial role in the disenfranchisement of African Americans at the end of the Civil War in the 1860s and 1870s and laid a foundation for the rise of Jim Crow segregation in the 1890s and 1900s. The second KKK also helped train some of the leaders who later formed the third KKK, a mainly Southern organization that rose up in the decades after World War II to murder and terrorize people in African-American communities, particularly civil rights movement activists. Klan members&rsquo hoods, white robes, and burning crosses made them icons of American white supremacy and terrorism, and their legacy haunts us to this day.
The Washington State KKK during the 1920s was founded by organizers from Oregon, which had one of the strongest Klan chapters in the country at the time. The State Klan organized a series of massive public rallies in 1923 and 1924 that ranged from 20,000 to 70,000 people. While they publicly disavowed violence, Klan members participated in violent intimidation campaigns against labor activists and Japanese farmers in Yakima Valley and probably elsewhere. They put forward a ballot initiative in 1924 to prohibit Catholic schools that voters soundly defeated. And though most of the State&rsquos Klan chapters collapsed in rancor following the defeat of their anti-private school initiative, a strong presence persisted in Whatcom and Skagit Counties throughout the 1930s. In the 1930s, some prominent leaders in the region&rsquos KKK went on to become involved in the facist Silver Legion, or &ldquoSilvershirts,&rdquo a national movement that, while small, was quite active in Washington State. And there is evidence that the Klan in Bellingham helped pioneer intimidation practices that paved the way for anti-communist witch-hunts in the 1940s.