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Andrew Young Speaks During Confirmation as U.N. Ambassador

Andrew Young Speaks During Confirmation as U.N. Ambassador


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On January 25, 1977, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee held a hearing to confirm Andrew Young as U.S. During the hearing, Young, who had come to national prominence as a leader in the civil rights struggle of the 1960s, makes clear his intention to use the democratic process to ensure world peace. He later became the first African-American to occupy this position.


Andrew Young Speaks On Legacy Of Civil Rights Movement In New GPB Documentary

GPB-TV has a new documentary about civil rights leader and former ambassador Andrew Young.

Young was a close ally of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. He went on to represent Atlanta in Congress. He was President Jimmy Carter's ambassador to the United Nations. And in the 1980s, Andrew Young served as Atlanta's mayor.

GPB's film profiling Andrew Young is hosted and produced by Sharon Collins. GPB's Rickey Bevington spoke to Collins about her experience sitting down with the icon.

This conversation has been edited for clarity and conciseness.

Rickey Bevington: There's a moment in this film when Ambassador Young surprises you.

Sharon Collins: He's talking about the march from Selma. I'm watching his documentary, which he allowed me to use clips from. People are being beaten over the head, women thrown to the ground. It was so violent. They called it "Bloody Sunday." He was just so matter of fact about it. I mean, they had clubs and tear gas. I was horrified by the violence.

Bevington: Let's hear part of that conversation.

Andrew Young: It wasn't as bad as it looked.

Collins: How can you say that? It was horrible!

Young: I know, but I don't think anybody stayed in the hospital more than a day compared to St. Augustine. In St. Augustine, our hospital bills were higher than our bond bills because people really got beat up.

Bevington: What does he mean by that?

Collins: A lot of people don't know about St. Augustine. There were multiple marches at night and a judge ruled that, yes, they could march at night, but they were attacked. Klansmen were very much involved.

At one point, he was walking and leading the march. You know, Andrew Young is Andrew Young. He thought, "Let me step across the street and and reason with these people, so that they won't hurt us." Of course, they beat him and kicked him to the ground.

They were beaten trying to go to the beach. There were multiple marches. What he means is that they had injuries so severe that they had to be in the hospital for a much longer period than the Selma injuries.

Bevington: It must be surreal, as a journalist, Sharon, to interview someone who has risked their life so many times that the terror of being killed is becomes relative.

Collins: He says Martin Luther King prepared them for death. They laughed at death. He says, "Martin would preach us to heaven and talk and crack on us all the time and make jokes, so that we actually were laughing about our own deaths."

But it is surreal because I'm not sure, in this day and age, there would be a movement where people were willing to just give their lives like that.

Bevington: Young has lived through so much history, and yet he also told you that he doesn't think the civil rights movement is over. Let's hear that clip.

Young: The civil rights movement can never be over because there will always be change. The #MeToo movement is part of the civil rights movement. The gay rights movement. I'm waiting for poor white men to start a movement.

Bevington: That's an incredible statement. Why does Young believe poor white men are a future civil rights movement?

Collins: It's not just poor white men, but poor white men between the ages of 40 and 60. He says they are dying faster than any other demographic in our nation. I checked him, and a lot of it is health care, lack of jobs, diabetes, things like that. And he said it used to be when you got out of World War Two, you got the G.I. Bill. You could say, "I'm a white man, so I'm okay."

What he's saying is, today, not so much. A lot of them are hurting. He feels like that's probably the next movement.

Bevington: What was your exposure to the civil rights movement as a child?

Collins: I knew nothing about it as a child, except when we took a family trip to Florida. They had a sign on the bathroom doors: Whites and Coloreds. So as a little girl, I ran to the coloreds room because I thought that one will be pretty and it'll have lots of colors in it. My mom was freaking out. She grabs me by the arm, and we get in the car.

I didn't understand, so I'm asking mom and dad all these questions, and they're trying to evade me because how do you tell a little kid about why there are white signs over one door and colored sign over another door? That was pretty much my exposure.

Now, I knew when Martin Luther King was assassinated, everybody was really sad. There was tension. My parents were glued to the television and concerned, but that's relatively all I know.

I hope that if if I didn't know this, think of the millions of young people who don't know anything about it. I hope they see.

GPB-TV's documentary is called "Andrew Young: A Moment in Time."


Andrew Young Speaks On Legacy Of Civil Rights Movement In New GPB Documentary

GPB-TV has a new documentary about civil rights leader and former ambassador Andrew Young.

Young was a close ally of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. He went on to represent Atlanta in Congress. He was President Jimmy Carter's ambassador to the United Nations. And in the 1980s, Andrew Young served as Atlanta's mayor.

GPB's film profiling Andrew Young is hosted and produced by Sharon Collins. GPB's Rickey Bevington spoke to Collins about her experience sitting down with the icon.

This conversation has been edited for clarity and conciseness.

Rickey Bevington: There's a moment in this film when Ambassador Young surprises you.

Sharon Collins: He's talking about the march from Selma. I'm watching his documentary, which he allowed me to use clips from. People are being beaten over the head, women thrown to the ground. It was so violent. They called it "Bloody Sunday." He was just so matter of fact about it. I mean, they had clubs and tear gas. I was horrified by the violence.

Bevington: Let's hear part of that conversation.

Andrew Young: It wasn't as bad as it looked.

Collins: How can you say that? It was horrible!

Young: I know, but I don't think anybody stayed in the hospital more than a day compared to St. Augustine. In St. Augustine, our hospital bills were higher than our bond bills because people really got beat up.

Bevington: What does he mean by that?

Collins: A lot of people don't know about St. Augustine. There were multiple marches at night and a judge ruled that, yes, they could march at night, but they were attacked. Klansmen were very much involved.

At one point, he was walking and leading the march. You know, Andrew Young is Andrew Young. He thought, "Let me step across the street and and reason with these people, so that they won't hurt us." Of course, they beat him and kicked him to the ground.

They were beaten trying to go to the beach. There were multiple marches. What he means is that they had injuries so severe that they had to be in the hospital for a much longer period than the Selma injuries.

Bevington: It must be surreal, as a journalist, Sharon, to interview someone who has risked their life so many times that the terror of being killed is becomes relative.

Collins: He says Martin Luther King prepared them for death. They laughed at death. He says, "Martin would preach us to heaven and talk and crack on us all the time and make jokes, so that we actually were laughing about our own deaths."

But it is surreal because I'm not sure, in this day and age, there would be a movement where people were willing to just give their lives like that.

Bevington: Young has lived through so much history, and yet he also told you that he doesn't think the civil rights movement is over. Let's hear that clip.

Young: The civil rights movement can never be over because there will always be change. The #MeToo movement is part of the civil rights movement. The gay rights movement. I'm waiting for poor white men to start a movement.

Bevington: That's an incredible statement. Why does Young believe poor white men are a future civil rights movement?

Collins: It's not just poor white men, but poor white men between the ages of 40 and 60. He says they are dying faster than any other demographic in our nation. I checked him, and a lot of it is health care, lack of jobs, diabetes, things like that. And he said it used to be when you got out of World War Two, you got the G.I. Bill. You could say, "I'm a white man, so I'm okay."

What he's saying is, today, not so much. A lot of them are hurting. He feels like that's probably the next movement.

Bevington: What was your exposure to the civil rights movement as a child?

Collins: I knew nothing about it as a child, except when we took a family trip to Florida. They had a sign on the bathroom doors: Whites and Coloreds. So as a little girl, I ran to the coloreds room because I thought that one will be pretty and it'll have lots of colors in it. My mom was freaking out. She grabs me by the arm, and we get in the car.

I didn't understand, so I'm asking mom and dad all these questions, and they're trying to evade me because how do you tell a little kid about why there are white signs over one door and colored sign over another door? That was pretty much my exposure.

Now, I knew when Martin Luther King was assassinated, everybody was really sad. There was tension. My parents were glued to the television and concerned, but that's relatively all I know.

I hope that if if I didn't know this, think of the millions of young people who don't know anything about it. I hope they see.

GPB-TV's documentary is called "Andrew Young: A Moment in Time."


Andrew Young Speaks During Confirmation as U.N. Ambassador - HISTORY



Wildcat Dreams Special Edition: Black History Month

In this special edition of the Wildcat Dreams, Fort Valley State University celebrates Black History Month.

FVSU President Dr. Ivelaw Lloyd Griffith shares highlights of campus activities related to the recognition of the 2015 Black History Month celebration at Fort Valley State University.


Fort Valley High and Industrial School's faculty members in 1908.
Marketing and Communications would like to give a special thanks to individuals that have written articles for this Black History Month edition.
  • Dr. Dawn Herd-Clark, chair for the Department of History, Geography, Political Science, and Criminal Justice
  • Dr. Peter Dumbuya, professor of history
  • Dr. Fred van Hartesveldt, history faculty member
  • Dr. Christine Lutz, associate professor of history
  • Stacey Watson, FVSU graduate student of history
  • Christina D. Milton, public relations specialist

Fort Valley State University's Founders Day honors the 18 men that helped to found our campus.

The very first speaker was W.E.B. DuBois, a historian, civil rights activist, Pan Africanist, sociologist, author and editor. He was born in Barrington, Massachusetts.

Learn more about DuBois' life as a scholar and activist here.

See the very first Founders Day program in the University of Massachusetts-Amherst's special collection of W.E.B. DuBois' papers online here.

Read FVSU associate professor of history, Dr. Christine Lutz's article about W.E.B. DuBois' participation in the Pan African Congress here.


Calvin Smyre, a 1970 Fort Valley State University alum, was honored on the Civil Rights Hall of Fame.

FVSU's Civil Rights icon: Calvin Smyre

The Honorable Calvin Smyre, a 1970 Fort Valley State University alum, is the first of two graduates the Office of Marketing and Communications is featuring this month. The current dean of Georgia's legislature has served more than 39 years as a state representative. He is chairman of the board for the FVSU Foundation, Inc. and the executive vice president of corporate affairs at the Synovus Financial Corporation.

Last year, he was honored on the Civil Rights Hall of Fame.

Read FVSU Marketing and Communication's past interview with Smyre here.


Dr. Charles Drew, an African-American doctor, created storage methods for blood and blood plasma to transplant into patients.

Famous African-American scientists and inventors

Learn about the lives of 14 African-American scientists and inventors that have broken barriers and changed lives.

    (astronomer and scientist) - (first African-American to walk on the moon) (astronaut, doctor and chemical engineer) (doctor that created storage methods for blood) physicist, inventor of the ultraviolet camera - chemist, Civil Rights Activist - performed the first open-heart surgery - botanist, scientist - inventor - inventor of the pacemaker - inventor of the electric transducer in microphones - biologist - astrophysicist - neurosurgeon


March on Washington, 1963 (taken by Warren K. Leffler, Library of Congress)


Important Legislation and Rulings that affected African-Americans

Important Legal Decisions

Executive Orders

    (freed slaves) banned racial discrimination in government departments and defense industries. desegregated the armed forces (established Equal Opportunity Commission) - banned segregation in federal housing - prohibited discrimination in employment decisions on basis of race, color, religion, sex and national origin. (1969) prohibited discrimination in federal civilian work force.

Famous African-Americans Born in February

Feb. 2 - William Artis (ceramicist/ artist)
Feb. 3. - Dennis Edwards (R&B singer/Temptations)
Feb. 4 - Rosa Parks (mother of the Civil Rights Movement)
Feb. 5 - Henry "Hank" Aaron (first baseball player to break Babe Ruth's record)
Feb. 6. - Melvin Tolson (educator and writer that led Wiley Debate Team)
Feb. 7. - Chris Rock
(comedian and film producer)
Feb. 8 - Gary Coleman (actor from Different Strokes television series)
Feb. 9 - Alice Walker (Pulitzer-Prize winning novelist of "The Color Purple")
Feb. 10 - Leontyne Price (award-winning opera singer)
Feb. 11 - Daniel James (1st African-American to attain 4-Star General Rank)
Feb. 12 - Arsenio Hall (talk show host, entertainer)
Feb. 13 - Emmett J. Scott (Chief Aid to Booker T. Washington)
Feb. 14 - Frederick Douglass (abolitionist, journalist and statesman)
Feb. 15 - Brian Holland (producer responsible for Motown Sound)
Feb. 16 - Levar Burton (actor Star Trek Next Generation and Roots)
Feb. 17 - Michael Jordan (basketball player)
Feb. 18 - Toni Morrison (Nobel and Pulitzer-Prize winning novelist of Beloved)
Feb. 19 - William "Smokey" Robinson (singer)
Feb. 20 - Sidney Poitier (1st black actor to win an Academy Award for Best Actor)
Feb. 21 - Nina Simone (jazz singer)
Feb. 22 - Julius Erving (basketball player)
Feb. 23 - W.E.B. DuBois (scholar, educator, author, journalist)
Feb. 24 - Floyd Mayweather Jr. (boxer)
Feb. 25 - Donald Quarrie (Olympic gold medalist)
Feb. 26 - Antoine Dominique "Fats" Domino ("Blueberry Hill" singer)
Feb. 27 - Marian Anderson - 1st African-American to perform with New York Metropolitan Opera
Feb. 28 - Charles Aaron "Bubba" Smith - NFL athlete and actor

Dr. Odessa Hardison McNair is a living legend on the campus of Fort Valley State University. Every time a special occasion-like Founders Day-takes place, students, faculty and staff members sing the university's alma mater, written in part by McNair. This month, the university is honoring McNair as one of its featured alums.

McNair grew up in the city of Fort Valley. After graduating from high school, she matriculated onto Fort Valley State College's campus to pursue a degree in business education. At the time, Dr. Cornelius V. Troup was the president of the school.

"It was a beautiful campus then," said McNair. "We also had a good president. We had good instructors who were very strict. We didn't have the technology that students have now. Our instructors were serious, and they were hard. We knew that we were coming here for a reason: we were coming here to get an education. That's what they emphasized. We had to follow the rules of the campus, and we had what they called a scope chart. If we weren't in our seats during chapel, then they would take the roll, and if you were absent, then everyone would know. They were very sincere about education at that time."

McNair graduated from FVSC in 1954. She taught in Fort Valley for two years, before she was hired by President Troup to work as a secretary for his administrative dean, Waldo W. E. Blanchet .

Read more here.

A Light in the Valley: A Pictorial History of Fort Valley State since 1895

Historian Donnie D. Bellamy wrote the essential facts of Fort Valley State, including the State Teachers and Agricultural College of Forsyth.

See WMAZ's video interview with interim library director Frank Mahitab about Bellamy's celebrated historical account of our university.

Past FVSU Presidents

  • Dr. Horace Mann Bond (1939-1945)
  • Dr. Cornelius Vanderbelt Troup (1945-1966)
  • Dr. Waldo William Emerson Blanchet (1966-1973)
  • Dr. Cleveland W. Pettigrew'43 (1973-1982)
  • Dr. Walter W. Sullivan (Acting President) 1983
  • Dr. Luther Burse (1988-1990)
  • Dr. Melvin E. Walker (Acting President) 1988-1990
  • Dr. Oscar Prater (1990-2001)
  • Dr. Kofi Lomotey (2001-2005)
  • Dr. William Harris (2005-2006)
  • Dr. Larry E. Rivers '73 (2006-2013)
  • Atty. Kimberly Ballard-Washington (Interim President) 1939-1945 (2013)

For pictures of past presidents, visit FVSU's Presidential Gallery.


Black Nobel Laureates

Learn about individuals of African descent from around the world who have received the Nobel Prizes. Follow the links below.

Nobel Prize

Ralph Bunche 1950 (United States, Peace 1st Black Person to win.)
Albert John Luthuli 1960 (South Africa, Peace, 1st Black African to win.)
Martin Luther King Jr. 1964 (United States, Peace)
Anwar El Sadat 1978 (Egypt, Peace)
Sir William Arthur Lewis 1979 (Saint Lucia, Economics)
Desmond Tutu 1984 (South Africa, Peace)
Wole Soyinka 1986 (Nigeria, Literature)
Derek Walcott 1992 (Saint Lucia, Literature)
Toni Morrison 1993 (United States, Literature, 1st Black woman to win prize.)
Nelson Mandela 1993 (South Africa, Peace)
Kofi Annan 2001 (Ghana, Peace)
Wangari Maathi 2004 (Kenya, 1st Black African woman to win prize.)
Barack Obama 2009 (United States, Peace)
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf 2011 (Liberia, Peace)
Leymah Gwobee 2011 (Liberia, Peace)

FVSU's 2013 Scholarship Luncheon: Andrew Young Jr. speaks about fight against segregation

Learn about the advice he would give to FVSU students at this link.


Jesse Jackson and the Rainbow Push Coalition at FVSU

See highlights of Jesse Jackson and the Rainbow Push Coalition's visit on Fort Valley State University's campus.






View more quotes from inspirational leaders and figures on Fort Valley State University's Walls of Wisdom Pinterest Page.

In FY2013, defined as July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013, Fort Valley State University spent $20.3 million within Peach County, addressing the following areas:

-$8.9 million on general operating expenditures
-$122,718 on additional capital expenditures
-$11,194, 057.47 on salaries, wages and benefits for employees residing in Peach County.

President's Social Media Networks

How Black History Month started

Black History Month, as Americans call it today, may have begun with a woman's proposal for a Day of Prayer. It would take a self-made man, Carter G. Woodson, to re-create the Day of Prayer to be the moment at which all Americans honor the contributions to America by peoples of the African Diaspora.

In 1903, Frances Harper, author and elocutionist, wrote to the Rev. Francis Grimke and suggested that he join her in promoting the idea of African Americans coming together across the country to pray. Black congregations and denominations had conducted days of prayer for decades since the Negro Day of Prayer on the White House lawn in March, 1863. However, Harper wanted Grimke to work with her to establish a Negro National Day of Prayer upon which all could agree. The prayers, she suggested, would promote racial unity, good character and courage.

Frances Harper, abolitionist

Frances Harper was born free in Maryland, a slave state, and she was orphaned at age three. Her aunt and uncle ensured that she was well-educated. By the time she was twenty, Watkins had published a volume of poetry and begun to speak on the Abolitionist elocution circuit, especially after her second book, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (said to have sold ten thousand copies), was published in 1854. Meanwhile, she had moved to Ohio to teach and also to volunteer on the Underground Railroad. There she met and married Fenton Harper in 1860. Harper, a prominent Abolitionist, fell ill, and she nursed him until his death in 1864.

To earn a living for his three children and their daughter, Harper returned to speaking, writing, and teaching. During the Reconstruction Era, Mrs. Harper traveled in the South and gave talks upon self-reliance and temperance to African Americans. After her speeches, she asked the women to stay behind while she spoke with them separately. Her poetry and novel reflected her belief that women were the engines of society. As she wrote about the black vote during Reconstruction, "I think that Col. Johnson said/His side had won the day/Had not we women radicals/Just got right in the way."


Both Sides Cheer $500K Verdict Against Andrew Young III Over Sale of TV Network

A Fulton County jury awarded $500,000 to a man who said he was owed nearly $5 million by Andrew “Bo” Young III from the proceeds of the 2017 sale of Bounce TV.

Plaintiff Bernard Parks’ suit originally included Young’s famous father, former Atlanta Mayor and U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young, as well as Martin Luther King III, but they were dismissed during the course of the litigation.

Kyler Wise, who led a trial team including fellow Wilson Brock & Irby partner Larry Dingle and Atlanta solo Michael Welch, said they were pleased with the verdict.

“It was a hard-fought trial,” Wise said in an email. “I thought that defense counsel did a great job and represented their client well. On behalf of Mr. Parks, we are happy with, and respect, the jury’s decision.”

Despite the award of a half-million dollars, lead defense counsel Drew Findling, who represented Bo Young and his company AY3 LLC, said he was also gratified with the outcome.

“ Obviously this was a devastating blow to the plaintiff he wanted nearly $5 million, and he basically got 10 percent of what he asked for,” said Findling, noting that the jury found for the defense on nearly all the plaintiff’s claims and declined to award attorney fees or punitive damages.

“The plaintiff had some very dedicated and hard-working attorneys,” said Findling, who defended the case with Findling Law Firm colleagues Marissa Goldberg and Zachary Kelehear and Law & Moran partner Pete Law.

According to case filings, the case began in 2011 when former Turner Broadcasting executive Ryan Glover set out to launch Bounce TV as “a start-up television production company which was owned and controlled by African-Americans” focused on programming for black viewers.

Parks, an Atlanta music promoter and manager, knew Glover and arranged a meeting between Glover and Bo and Andrew Young and King. The Youngs and King agreed to become “founding members” in what Parks’ complaint described as an effort to lend credibility to the startup.

The founding members were rewarded with a 10 percent equity share, with Bo Young getting 5.5 percent of the share. According to Parks’ complaint, he and Bo Young agreed to split Young’s share equally, but that deal was never memorialized on paper.

Parks was also given a 1 percent equity share for bringing the other three on board.

In 2017 broadcaster E.W. Scripps bought Bounce, resulting in a nearly $16 million payout to the founding members. Later that year, Parks sued AY3, both Youngs and King, saying he was owed $4.4 million.

Parks’ complaint included claims for breach of contract, unjust enrichment, quantum meruit, money had and received, promissory estoppel and breach of fiduciary duty.

Shortly after the suit was filed, Bo Young filed a counterclaim for assault against Parks, claiming he had threatened to “kick your ass” and “fuck you up” and had a history of violence.

Last year, Parks voluntarily dismissed his claims against King and the elder Young.

The case went to trial Feb. 25 before Superior Court Judge Kelly Lee Ellerbe.

Findling said Parks’ own testimony may have been the most important factor for the jury.

“During my cross-examination, he admitted that, after Bounce started in 2011, he basically had no role from 2012 through 2017,” Findling said.

During that time, “my client was flying around the country promoting Bounce TV,” he said.

Young’s assault claim was “minimally addressed,” he said, noting that that claim had been filed before he was involved in the case.

In closing, he said Parks’ lawyers asked for about $4.8 million in damages.

On Feb. 28, the jury took five or six hours to find for the defense on all claims except for unjust enrichment, awarding $500,000.

They found for Parks on Young’s assault claim.

In speaking to a juror afterward, Findling said, “it seemed rather obvious that the award in many ways adopted our theory that the plaintiff offered no labor from 2012 to 2017, and they clearly rejected the verbal contract claim.”

The award, he said, “appeared to be some way to address the effort the plaintiff put in back in 2011.”


The History Book Club discussion


Former Atlanta mayor and current U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young speaks during the annual Martin Luther King Jr. Freedom Breakfast at the University of Georgia on Friday, Jan. 23, 2015 in Athens, Ga. (Richard Hamm/Staff) OnlineAthens / Athens Banner-Herald Richard Hamm/Staff

By LEE SHEARER - updated Friday, January 23, 2015 - 10:46pm

Andrew Young didn’t speak much about the recent movie “Selma” in a talk at the University of Georgia on Friday.

Young has praised the recently-released movie loosely based on the historic civil rights march in the Alabama town in 1965.

But on Friday, he recommended his own 2011 documentary on the Selma march and its legacy — “Leaving Selma,” directed by Young and C.B. Hackworth — and shared his own memories of some of the events on which the movie is based.

Young was the keynote speaker at Athens’ annual MLK Freedom Breakfast in UGA’s Tate Student Center Friday morning. Organized by UGA, the Clarke County School District and the Athens-Clarke County Unified Government, the annual breakfast honors the legacy of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.

Young, now 82, was with King when he accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in December 1964. On the way back, King and Young dropped by to see President Lyndon Johnson, Young told the crowd of nearly 600 people.

Earlier that year, segregationists led by U.S. Sen. Richard Russell of Georgia had filibustered for months before the Senate passed the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964, but King prevailed on Johnson to do more, Young recalled.

King wanted Johnson to push a bill through Congress that would give blacks the right to vote. At the time, laws and practices in Southern states like Georgia made it difficult or impossible for black citizens to vote.

Johnson said he couldn’t introduce the Voting Rights Act in 1965 after struggling much of 1964 with the filibuster.

“I’m sorry, but I just don’t have the power right now,” Johnson said.
After that meeting more than 50 years ago, King said something that surprised Young.

“I think we need to find the president some power,” King told Young.
Just a few months later, in March 1965, Johnson got that power when thousands of nonviolent marchers led by King were attacked by police in Selma, Ala.

The nationally televised police brutality outraged the nation, even in the South. Johnson introduced the Voting Rights Bill of 1965, saying “We shall overcome” as he did, and in August, Congress approved it, Johnson signed it, and it was law.
“It seemed so easy,” Young said, except it cost the lives of a young man, shot by police as he tried to protect his mother from billy clubs, and a minister, killed by a group of whites during the march.

Young was on the same page as Johnson, thinking politically. But King thought spiritually, said Young, a close aide to King who was also there in 1968 when the beloved civil rights leader was slain by an assassin in Memphis.

“Ultimately he thought all human beings have a streak of decency that could be revealed if you treated them with respect and brought that decency forth,” Young said of King.

The effects of the voting rights bill changed U.S. history, said Young, who after 1965 went on to national prominence at a number of posts, including two-term mayor of Atlanta, a moving force in bringing the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games to Atlanta, and as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations under Jimmy Carter.

“Jimmy Carter never could have been president without that bill,” Young said. Neither Bill Clinton nor Barack Obama would have been elected without it, he said.
Today, problems remain, as demonstrated by the recent police shootings of black men in several U.S. cities, Young said.

But race isn’t the central issue it was then, he said.

“Most of the things we have to deal with are not related to race but class,” he said.

“It’s all green (as in money).”

And the way to fix that problem is to give police officers decent pay and training, he said.

“If you want a society to work, you’ve got to pay teachers and you’ve got to pay police officers,” he said.

During Young’s eight years as Atlanta mayor, the police department because more diverse — about half black, half white, and 30 percent female.

“We made democracy work in Atlanta,” he said.

What led to Selma - one of reasons for the choice of Selma and some other specific cities was Laurie Pritchett - the police chief in Albany, Georgia.

Former reporter and editor Claude Sitton and journalist Gene Roberts explain how Police Chief Laurie Pritchett stifled the civil rights movement in Albany, Ga. - Martin Luther King studied Pritchett back and learned from this set back.

Who was Laurie Pritchett

Pritchett, Laurie (1926-2000) from the King Encyclopedia

As police chief of Albany, Georgia, Laurie Pritchett gained national attention when he effectively thwarted the efforts of the Albany Movement in 1961–1962. Pritchett’s nonviolent response to demonstrations, including the mass arrests of protesters and the jailing of Martin Luther King, Jr., was seen as an effective strategy in bringing the campaign to an end before the movement could secure any concrete gains.

Pritchett was born on 9 December 1926, in Griffin, Georgia. Pritchett attended Auburn University and South Georgia College before graduating from the National Academy of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Southern Police Institute at the University of Louisville. An Army veteran, he was also a decorated and distinguished member of numerous law enforcement organizations. By 1961 Pritchett had risen to become Albany’s Chief of Police.

In 1961 Charles Sherrod and Cordell Reagon of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) began to organize a grassroots movement in Albany, Georgia. Gaining the support of Albany State College students, local ministers, and others in the community, SNCC contested racial segregation in bus and train stations, libraries, parks, and hospitals and discrimination in jury representation, voting, and employment. Pritchett ordered his officers to enforce the law without using violence in public and to make arrests under laws protecting the public order, rather than under the more legally unstable segregation laws. According to King, ‘‘Chief Pritchett felt that by directing his police to be nonviolent, he had discovered a new way to defeat the demonstrations’’ (King, 69). Pritchett, who had anticipated mass arrests, arranged to have access to jails in nearby cities available for the hundreds of arrested demonstrators. Pritchett also ordered his officers to enforce the law without using violence in public and to make arrests under laws protecting the public order, rather than under the more legally unstable segregation laws.

At the invitation of W. G. Anderson, president of the Albany Movement, King and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) arrived in Albany in December 1961. King’s presence in Albany drew national attention to the protests. When King and Ralph Abernathy were found guilty of parading without a permit in July 1962, an anonymous man paid their bail. King wanted to remain in jail to pressure city officials to negotiate in good faith with the Albany Movement, and in a statement following his release, King said: ‘‘This is one time that I’m out of jail and I’m not happy to be out’’ (King, Statement, 12 July 1962). King and Abernathy were arrested again in late July, but were given suspended sentences and released. The judgment brought much relief to Pritchett, who was well aware throughout the campaign that demonstrations increased when King was jailed.

Throughout the movement, white Albany city officials never followed through on any of the compromises reached with protesters. In December 1961 demonstrations were temporarily halted by the promise that bus and train stations would be desegregated, protesters would be released from jail, and a biracial committee would be formed to discuss segregation issues in Albany. Albany city officials stalled on implementing these changes, and did not uphold all parts of the agreement. Despite the dishonesty of some Albany officials, however, King believed Pritchett was inherently a good person. ‘‘I sincerely believe that Chief Pritchett is a nice man, a basically decent man, but he’s so caught up in a system that he ends up saying one thing to us behind closed doors and then we open the newspaper and he’s said something else to the press’’ (King, Address, 12 July 1962).

In August 1962, King left Albany with no tangible civil rights gains achieved. While many in the press called the movement ‘‘one of the most stunning defeats’’ in King’s career, Pritchett was lauded for his use of nonviolence (‘‘King Suffered’’). Pritchett’s nonviolent approach left an indelible imprint on King, who later wrote of his indignation at Pritchett’s use of ‘‘the moral means of nonviolence to maintain the immoral ends of racial injustice’’ (King, 99).

After leaving Albany, Pritchett served as chief of police in High Point, North Carolina, until his retirement in 1975. Although King and Pritchett were adversaries in the 1960s, Pritchett later considered King a ‘‘close personal friend’’ (Pritchett, 23 April 1976). He died in 2000, at the age of 73.


Stanford hosts United Nations Foundation board members

Media mogul-turned-environmentalist Ted Turner talked about the need for a cleaner, more energy efficient planet while former U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young reflected on a life of public service and today's political climate.

By Michele Chandler and Adam Gorlick

Ted Turner, creator of CNN, talks about success in business, and helping the United Nations.

The media business is in the rear window for Ted Turner, the entrepreneur who founded CNN – the nation’s first all-news cable network – in 1980. Today, Turner is focused on developing ways to stop global warming, encourage energy conservation and stem population growth.

Turner recounted how he went from running his father’s billboard business to becoming a billionaire and high-profile humanitarian in a wide-ranging talk to students as a View From the Top speaker at the Stanford Graduate School of Business. 

Turner is chairman of the board of the United Nations Foundation, a public charity he founded in 1998 with a historic $1 billion pledge, the largest philanthropic gift of its time. The foundation supports the U.N. and a variety of causes around the world through a blend of advocacy, grant making and partnerships.

Turner was joined at Stanford on Wednesday by U.N. Foundation board members Andrew Young and Emma Rothschild, who met individually with smaller groups of students.

Ted Turner and interviewer Jason LeeKeenan, a second year student at the Stanford Graduate School of Business.

Turner said his foundation has worked with former Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates and the Rotary International service club to come close to eradicating polio.

"That will be only the second disease in the history of the world that’s been eradicated – smallpox is the other," he said. "That would be a gigantic win."

But the main problem to be addressed, Turner said, is a surging population that is overwhelming the Earth’s resources.

"The planet is collapsing all around us," he said. "Ocean fisheries are collapsing from over-fishing. Wind, water and erosion are washing the topsoil away. We’ve got to take better care of the planet."

He said his own lifestyle reflects his philosophy. He drives a Prius, and doesn't have a huge house.

"So I don’t feel guilty about living there," he said.

During his talk, Turner cracked jokes, recited poetry and showed his penchant for speaking his mind, a trait that earned him the nickname the "Mouth From the South." His secret to business success? "Early to bed, early to rise, work like hell and advertise."

Young speaks to students

Speaking separately to a group of 11 students on Wednesday, U.N. Foundation board member Andrew Young proved he could deliver a line every bit as snappy as anything Turner had to offer.

"I've been everywhere and I've done everything and I don't really care about anything but the truth," he said before embarking on a reflection of his career as a civil rights leader, politician and U.N. ambassador.

"Anything you’ve got guts enough to ask, I've got guts enough to answer."

He told stories from his days as a close friend and adviser to Martin Luther King Jr., and he didn't shy away from discussing the flap that erupted over his secret meeting with leaders of the Palestinian Liberation Organization during his tenure as President Carter's ambassador to the U.N.

The controversy forced Young to step down from the job.

"I got very frustrated because I had to leave the U.N. just because I was trying to get the Israelis and Palestinians talking to each other," he said. He said each side asked him to get personally involved in brokering a peace agreement.

"I was thrown in the middle of this, and the country wasn't ready for it," he said. "But they were ready to agree to everything then that we're trying to get them to agree to today."

Saying that he was never trained as a diplomat and recounting his discomfort with bureaucracy, Young said stepping down from his role at the U.N. only led to an even better job: running the city of Atlanta.

"Being mayor of Atlanta was the best job I ever had," he said. "I was the boss, and I could do crazy things and catch hell for it. We did a lot of crazy things, but they all worked out. And the city grew from less than a million people to almost 6 million now."

When he was elected to Congress in 1972, Young was the first black from the Deep South to join the House of Representatives since Reconstruction. While that may have been a sign of progress at the time, Young derided the current state of American politics.

"The American people have elected a Congress that brags that only half of its members even have a passport," he said. "So how are you going to make decisions about the world if you've never been anywhere? People end up getting elected to Congress who are more and more provincial because they appeal more to people's fears than to their visions. And we end up with a backward Congress."

For the most part, Turner avoided talking politics. Instead, he shared some advice with the new generation of business leaders.

"You’ve got to play by the rules," he said. "It’s not that hard. You can make billions playing by the rules and doing things honestly, if you’re smart enough and work hard enough."

Michele Chandler is a freelance writer for the Graduate School of Business.


U.N. diplomat tells Princeton students that peace with Iran is 'inevitable'

Former UN Ambassador Andrew Young speaks during the Coretta Scott King funeral ceremony at the New Birth Missionary Baptist Church in Lithonia, Ga., Tuesday, Feb. 7, 2006. (AP Photo/Renee Hannans Henry, POOL)

The Rev. Ambassador Andrew Young, former civil rights leader, mayor of Atlanta, and U.S. ambassador to the U.N., gave an optimistic view of U.S. relations with Iran in a service at the Princeton University Chapel on Sunday.

“Frankly, I think peace is inevitable,” Young said. His sermon, which was part of an interfaith service and conference sponsored by the Princeton-based Coalition for Peace Action, came mere hours after France had barred the latest nuclear agreement between Iran and major powers. The title of the conference this year was, “Diplomacy, Not War in Iran.”

Young, now 81, drew on his experience as an ambassador during the Carter administration to emphasize that the United States has overcome its fear of nuclear weapons before. He said that he is much more confident now about reaching a peaceful solution than he was when Russia and China posed a nuclear threat and he “didn’t know what might happen.”

“I think we’ve been there and we’ve done that,” he said, referring to negotiations over nuclear armament during the Cold War. “I’m not trivializing the difficulties we face,” he added. “I’m really trying to humanize them.”

Humanizing one’s adversaries was the broad theme of Young’s address, and he frequently referenced the lessons he had learned as a top aide to Martin Luther King Jr.

Young also told lighthearted stories about overcoming his own fear of foreign nations by becoming tennis partners with a Russian ambassador and his wife, and serving a Chinese delegation their first homemade Southern meal. The anecdotes resonated with many audience members, who said they were inspired by his message that commonality is greater than difference.

The service itself — an annual event in which Christian, Jewish, Baha’i, Muslim, and Sikh representatives lead worship together — underscored this goal. Peace coalition director Rev. Robert Moore estimated that over 700 people were in attendance.

The program that followed brought professors, authors, and diplomats into conversation about Iran, including former Iranian ambassador Seyed Hossein Mousavian, who served as a spokesperson for Iran in nuclear negotiations and is currently a research fellow at Princeton University.

Mousavian gave a brief history of Iran’s nuclear program beginning with its U.S.-assisted launch in the 1950s. Sanctions, he said, have been “completely unproductive,” since Iran’s nuclear capabilities have only expanded since they were imposed.

“If France changes its position I believe the nuclear conflict will be resolved,” Mousavian said. Though he admitted that he was personally “shocked” to learn that France had blocked the deal, he is hopeful that they can be persuaded to cooperate.

All of the speakers took a line similar to Young's by saying that Americans should be careful not to demonize Iranians by using rhetoric such as the "Axis of Evil."

Professor Hillary Leverett, who has worked for the National Security Council and the U.S. State Department, reminded the audience that Iran used to be an American ally, and was supportive in the aftermath of 9/11. She also mentioned Nixon's opening the door to China as an example of the kind of positive diplomatic shift that could happen again.

Hanan Isaacs, a Princeton attorney, said that the personal stories he heard in the conference made him question the political discourse on these topics.

“It’s always refreshing to hear perspectives that we do not get in the mainstream press,” he said.


Political Career

In 1970, Young left the SCLC to make a run for Congress but was defeated at the polls. Two years later, he ran again, and this time was elected to the House of Representatives. Young was the first African American to represent Georgia in Congress since Reconstruction. In his time as a legislator, he supported programs for the poor, educational initiatives and human rights.

During Jimmy Carter&aposs run for the presidency, Young offered key political support when Carter was in office, he chose Young to be the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations. Young left his seat in Congress to take the position. While ambassador, he advocated for human rights on a global scale, such as sanctions to oppose rule by apartheid in South Africa.

In 1979, Young had to resign his ambassadorship, as he had met in secret with Zehdi Labib Terzi, the Palestinian Liberation Organization&aposs U.N. observer. The resignation did not keep Young from being elected as Atlanta&aposs mayor in 1981. After two terms as mayor, he failed in his attempt to secure the Democratic nomination to run for governor of Georgia. However, Young was successful in his campaign for Atlanta to host the Olympic Games in 1996.


OC brings civil rights activist Andrew Young to campus

Civil rights activist Andrew Young will address audiences tonight during Oklahoma Christian University’s annual History Speaks event. A former member of Martin Luther King Jr.’s inner circle and an eyewitness of King’s assassination, Young’s accomplishments include serving as the first black mayor of Atlanta, the United States Ambassador to the U.N. and as a U.S. Representative from Georgia.

Oklahoma Christian Assistant Dean of Students Gary Jones has worked on the History Speaks program since his wife conceptualized the event more than five years ago. Through the event, Oklahoma Christian has hosted significant figures form the civil rights movement such as Diane Nash, members of the Little Rock Nine and 1968 Olympic medalists John Carlos and Tommie Smith.

Jones said his process in choosing a speaker is to look back at the height of the civil rights movement and try to find important stories and people. Jones said those who attend the event will hear stories, which “help us to realize civil rights leaders are people just like us.”

“One of those stories that I felt like we really haven’t had the chance to tell was a really, really good story about Dr. King,” Jones said. “When you think of Dr. King, in my opinion, and those who were close to him, you think of either John Lewis or Andrew Young. So, we really made an effort this year to try to get one of those two guys to campus.”

Though Jones went through a speaker agency to make initial contact with Young, he eventually reached out to Nash, a pioneer of the civil rights movement and the speaker at History Speaks in 2017, to get in touch with Young.

According to Jones, students and members of the community will hear personal stories about Dr. King during tonight’s event, as well as additional insight into the movement itself.

“I think students can expect this night to be both educational and challenging,” Jones said. “I think you’ll find out some things about not only Dr. King and Andrew Young, but just about the movement itself that you may have not known before coming. But I think you’ll also be able to leave with some practical ways that you can continue working to make the world a better place.”

As the Oklahoma Christian Black Student Union’s social media coordinator and the head of the SGA’s Multicultural Committee, junior Thomas Caldwell said he is really excited to hear Young speak, as it gives students a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to not only witness someone who experienced an important era in American history, but to also better themselves.

“Every time History Speaks is announced, I’m always reminded that not every school has this opportunity,” Caldwell said. “So being a man of color, I don’t want to be comfortable, and I’m always looking to improve myself, inspire others and hopefully the future generation. I think this event does that perfectly.”

According to Jones, Oklahoma Christian expects the overflow room to sell out this year, potentially making this History Speaks the biggest one yet. In addition to the general “local buzz” about Young, many members from Young’s college fraternity, Alpha Phi Alpha, bought tickets to attend.

Jones said he hopes all people who attend get something out of the program.

“I hope they get a chance to hear and truly listen to somebody who first-hand experienced a lot of things that we’re still fighting for,” Jones said. “I hope they get the chance to appreciate the efforts and the literal blood, sweat and tears that some of our civil rights leaders have put into the soil for us to be able to have a better life as a result of it.”


Watch the video: Kenneths tale til Malle (June 2022).


Comments:

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