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Treaty of Rijswijk - History

Treaty of Rijswijk - History


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The Treaty of Rijswijk ends the 11 year war of the League of Augsburg. All of Spanish lands conquered by France were returned to it.

The "Barrier Treaties" refer to a series of agreements signed and ratified between 1709 and 1715 that created a buffer zone between the Dutch Republic and France by allowing the Dutch to occupy a number of fortresses within the Spanish or Austrian Netherlands.

The Battle of Hudson's Bay, also known as the Battle of York Factory, was a naval battle fought during the War of the Grand Alliance (known in England's North American colonies as "King William's War").


Treaty of Ryswick

The talks took place between the countries of the Grand Alliance (Comprised of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire 1 and the United Provinces (The Netherlands)) on one side, and France on the other. The two sides had been involved in a war against each other (the War of the League of Augsburg). During the negotiations, which lasted severaL months, the French delegation stayed in The Hague and their counterparts in the city of Delft. Ryswick, where the negotiations were carried out, is situated in between.

Important outcome for Saint-Domingue

After the Treaty of Ryswick, French colonialists in what is now Haiti, could grow with significantly less warfare and interruptions that had been common in the years prior. This set the stage for rapidly expanding slavery and for Saint-Domingue to become one of the richest and most productive european colonies.

The treaty was finally ratified by the Treaty of Aranjuez on June 3, 1777 and the Treaty of Basel on July 22, 1795, leaving the western one-third of Hispaniola, Saint-Domingue a French colony and the eastern two-thirds, the current Dominican Republic to Spain.

Note 1: The Holy Roman Empire was known from the 16th century also as The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.


RIJSWIJK OBELISK

ExpatINFO Holland

Tucked away in the Rijswijk woods is a stone obelisk, a monument to the Treaty of Rijswijk, signed in the Huis de Nieuwburg palace in 1697. Find out more about this historical event and the monument that remembers it…

The tall stone obelisk statue in the middle of the Rijswijkse Bos (woods) is called De Naald (‘the needle’) and was created in 1794, nearly 100 years after the event that it honors…the Treaty of Rijswijk signed in September 1697.

Unlike most monuments, which are placed in highly visible locations with lots of pedestrian tourist traffic, De Naald seems rather hidden. You have to walk (or cycle) into the woods to reach it. Even so, it does make for a dramatic first impression. The tall leafy trees block out much of the sunlight, so that even on a bright day it can seem rather dark as you follow one of the walking trails. A clearing ahead suddenly seems like a ball of brightness and as you get closer, the brightness gives way to the De Naald obelisk, a 4-sided stone needle that sits on a raised knoll in the center of the clearing.

THE TREATY OF RIJSWIJK

The ‘Treaty of Rijswijk’ was a grand event that took place at the equally grand palace Huis de Nieuwburg. The Rijswijkse Bos sits on land which was part of the palace grounds. The signing of the treaty marked the end of the Nine-Year War which was fought between France (under King Louis XIV) and numerous other ‘lands’ which eventually allied together to defeat France including Sweden, Denmark, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, England and the Dutch Republic.

Representatives from all the lands came to Huis de Nieuwburg for the signing. Among other things, the treaty officially recognized Willem III, Prince of Oranje-Nassau as King of England.

In 1790, when the Huis de Nieuwburg was being demolished, it was decided a monument should be raised to the signing of the Treaty of Rijswijk (even though the agreement lasted but a short time) and to construct it from palace stone following the demolition.

The ‘De Naald’ monument was formally commissioned in 1795 and completed two years later, in 1797.


North America

The War of the Grand Alliance also played out in North America, where it was called King William's War. The French colonies of Acadia and Canada, along with their Native allies (notably Abenaki, Pennacook, and Huron), fought the northern English colonies and their Native allies (notably Iroquois and Mohawk). In this theatre the French had been on the ascendant "all the English assaults on French possessions had been repulsed Fort Penobscot on the border of Acadia had been destroyed the frontiers of both New England and New York had been ravaged and forced back the English outposts in Newfoundland had been destroyed and the island virtually conquered." [2]

In addition, throughout the war England's claims to the Hudson Bay had been severely contested in a series of French expeditions culminating in Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville's capture of York Factory shortly before the signing of the treaty. In spite of this the Treaty of Ryswick returned the territorial borders to where they had been before the war (status quo ante bellum). The Iroquois nation, deserted by their English allies, continued to make war on the French colonies until the Great Peace of Montreal of 1701.

Caribbean

Spain formally recognized French control of some Caribbean territory: Tortuga Island and the western third of the adjacent island of Hispaniola, where the French colony of Saint-Domingue had been established.


Signing of the Treaty of Ryswick

The Treaty of Ryswick or Ryswyck was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (now known as Rijswijk) in the Dutch Republic.

The treaty settled the Nine Years' War, which pitted France against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces.

Negotiations started in May. The French representatives had their headquarters at The Hague and the allies were based in Delft: the conference taking place in between the two towns in the Huis ter Nieuwburg in Ryswick.

For the first few weeks no result was reached, so in June the two protagonists in the struggle, William III of Orange and Louis XIV of France, each appointed one representative to meet together privately. The two chosen were William Bentinck, Earl of Portland, and Marshal Boufflers, and they soon drew up the terms of an agreement, to which, however, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and Charles II of Spain would not assent. But in a short time Spain gave way, and on 20 September a treaty of peace was signed between France and the three powers, England, Spain and the United Provinces. William then persuaded Leopold to make peace, and a treaty between France and the Holy Roman Empire was signed on the following 30 October.

The basis of the peace was that all towns and districts seized since the Treaty of Nijmegen (1679) should be restored. Then France surrendered Freiburg, Breisach and Philippsburg - to the Holy Roman Empire, although she kept Strasbourg. On the other hand, she was granted Saint-Domingue (later to become Haiti) and regained Pondicherry (after paying the Dutch a sum of 16,000 pagodas) and Nova Scotia, while Spain recovered Catalonia, and the barrier fortresses of Mons, Luxembourg and Kortrijk. The Duchy of Lorraine, which for many years had been in the possession of France, was restored to Leopold Joseph, a son of Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, and the Dutch were to be allowed to garrison some of the chief fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands, including Namur and Ypres. Louis undertook to recognize William III as king of England, and promised to give no further assistance to James II of England he abandoned his interference in the electorate of Cologne and also the claim which he had put forward to some of the lands of the Electoral Palatinate.

Three treaties were signed at Ryswick, September 20, 1697, securing peace between Louis XIV of France on the one side, and on the other William III of Orange (acting for Great Britain), the United Provinces of the Low Countries, and Charles II of Spain. These treaties concluded the War of the League of Augsburg which had been fought for the previous eight years.


Treaty of Ryswick

The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). The treaty settled the War of the Grand Alliance, which pitted France against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces.

Negotiations started in May. The French representatives had their headquarters at the Hague and the allies were based in Delft: the conference taking place in between the two towns in the Huis ter Nieuwburg in Ryswick.

For the first few weeks no result was reached, so in June the two protagonists in the struggle, William III of England and Louis XIV of France, each appointed one representative to meet together privately. The two chosen were William Bentinck, Earl of Portland, and Marshal Boufflers, and they soon drew up the terms of an agreement, to which, however, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and Charles II of Spain would not assent. But in a short time Spain gave way, and on 20 September a treaty of peace was signed between France and the three powers, England, Spain and the United Provinces. William then persuaded Leopold to make peace, and a treaty between France and the Holy Roman Empire was signed on the following 30 October.

The basis of the peace was that all towns and districts seized since the Treaty of Nijmegen (1679) should be restored. Then France surrendered Freiburg, Breisach and Philippsburg - to the Holy Roman Empire, although she kept Strasbourg. On the other hand, she was granted Saint-Domingue (later to become Haiti) and regained Pondicherry (after paying the Dutch a sum of 16,000 pagodas) and Nova Scotia, while Spain recovered Catalonia, and the barrier fortresses of Mons, Luxembourg and Courtrai. The Duchy of Lorraine, which for many years had been in the possession of France, was restored to Leopold Joseph, a son of Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, and the Dutch were to be allowed to garrison some of the chief fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands, including Namur and Ypres. Louis undertook to recognize William III as king of England, and promised to give no further assistance to James II of England he abandoned his interference in the electorate of Cologne and also the claim which he had put forward to some of the lands of the Rhenish Palatinate.


Background

The Nine Years' War was financially crippling for its participants, partly because armies increased in size from an average of 25,000 in 1648, to over 100,000 by 1697. This was unsustainable for pre-industrial economies the war absorbed 80% of English state revenue in the period, while the huge manpower commitments badly affected the economy. [1]

The 1690s also marked the lowest point of the so-called Little Ice Age, a period of cold and wet weather affecting Europe in the second half of the 17th century. Harvests failed throughout Europe in 1695, 1696, 1698 and 1699 in Scotland and parts of Northern Europe, an estimated 5–15% of the population starved to death. [2]

Although fighting largely ended in Europe after 1695, the subsidiary conflict known as King William's War continued in the Americas. A French fleet arrived in the Caribbean in early 1697, threatening the Spanish treasure fleet, and English possessions in the West Indies. [3] England occupied the whole of Nova Scotia, while the French repulsed attacks on Quebec, captured York Factory, and caused substantial damage to the New England economy. [4]


The Treaties of Ryswick (1697)

In 1697, the Huis ter Nieuburch in Rijswijk was the scene of the negotiations which led to so-called “Peace of Ryswick”. These negotiations sought to end the Nine-Years War between France on one side and the Grand Alliance of Spain, England, The Dutch Republic and The Holy Roman Empire. The Peace Treaty of Rijswijk was not a single document but consisted of a number of treaties which were signed during the months of September and October 1697. The treaties have been scanned in order to familiarize researchers with our historical collection. Prepared by Niels van Tol.

The Treaties of Ryswick (1697)

In 1697, the Huis ter Nieuburch (1) in Rijswijk (2) was the scene of the negotiations which led to so-called “Peace of Ryswick” (3). These negotiations sought to end the Nine-Years War between France on one side and the Grand Alliance of Spain, England, The Dutch Republic and The Holy Roman Empire. The Peace Treaty of Rijswijk was not a single document but consisted of a number of treaties which were signed during the months of September and October 1697. The treaties have been scanned in order to familiarize researchers with our historical collection.

Treaties and Articles

20 September 1697 – Treaty of Peace between France and Spain

20 September 1697 – Treaty of Peace between France and England

20 September 1697 – Articles for the Suspension of Armed Conflict in Germany between France and the Holy Roman Empire

21 September 1697 – Treaty of Peace and a Treaty of Commerce between France and the Dutch Republic

09 October 1697 – Separate Article for the Dutch Republic

30 October 1697 – Treaty of Peace between France and the Holy Roman Empire

Treaty Differences

Of note here are the differences between the Peace Treaties of the 20th and 21st of September and the Articles for the Suspension of Armed Conflict in Germany on the 20th. The governments of England and the Dutch Republic, bound together by their leader William III (4), and the government of Spain wished for peace with France. The French government under Louis XIV (5) wished the same.

However, the government of the Holy Roman Empire under Leopold I (6) wished to strengthen its position regarding the question of the Spanish Succession (the succession of Charles II (7) of Spain) and did not sign a peace treaty on the 20th or the 21st but only a cease fire. This resulted in a problem for the members of the Grand Alliance 3 of the 4 partners had signed (but not yet ratified) peace treaties but the Holy Roman Empire did not and could thus continue the war, which would drag the other 3 signatories of the peace treaties back into the conflict.

To force the hand of the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic negotiated a special agreement with France, the Article of the 9th of October 1697 if the Holy Roman Empire did not agree to a Peace Treaty before the beginning of November then the Peace Treaty between France and the Dutch Republic would go into immediate effect on that date the Dutch Republic would leave the Grand Alliance. Since England and the Dutch Republic shared their head of state, England would certainly follow the Dutch Republic and leave the alliance as well. Spain, the weakest of the 4 partners would not be able to continue the war without the support of England and the Dutch Republic and would likewise end its involvement. The Holy Roman Empire would be isolated in the conflict with France.

Negotiations dragged on but the government of the Holy Roman Empire was basically out of options there was a war with the Ottoman Empire in the east and to continue the war with France in the west would be too risky. The Peace Treaty on the 30th can be seen in this light the time limit was dragged out to its maximum but its conclusion was inevitable.

Outcome and further developments

The final Treaty of Peace was signed in October 1697, ratifications followed and Europe settled for a period of peace. Which lasted till the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700, when all assurances of good will, friendship and peace were found to be worth less than the paper they were written on. In 1702, the War of the Spanish Succession broke out.

The Huis ter Nieuburch was demolished in 1790 but to commemorate the treaties, an obelisk was erected at the site the Needle of Rijswijk (8)

Documents

The treaties have been scanned in order to familiarize researchers with our historical collection.


Treaty of Ryswick

The Treaty of Ryswick or Ryswyck was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (now known as Rijswijk) in the Dutch Republic. The treaty settled the Nine Years' War, which pitted France against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces. [ 1 ]

Negotiations started in May. The French representatives had their headquarters at The Hague and the allies were based in Delft: the conference taking place in between the two towns in the Huis ter Nieuwburg in Ryswick. [ 1 ]

For the first few weeks no result was reached, so in June the two protagonists in the struggle, William III of Orange and Louis XIV of France, each appointed one representative to meet together privately. The two chosen were William Bentinck, Earl of Portland, and Marshal Boufflers, and they soon drew up the terms of an agreement, to which, however, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and Charles II of Spain would not assent. But in a short time Spain gave way, and on 20 September a treaty of peace was signed between France and the three powers, England, Spain and the United Provinces. William then persuaded Leopold to make peace, and a treaty between France and the Holy Roman Empire was signed on the following 30 October.

The basis of the peace was that all towns and districts seized since the Treaty of Nijmegen (1679) should be restored. Then France surrendered Freiburg, Breisach and Philippsburg - to the Holy Roman Empire, although she kept Strasbourg. On the other hand, she was granted Saint-Domingue (later to become Haiti) and regained Pondicherry (after paying the Dutch a sum of 16,000 pagodas) and Nova Scotia, while Spain recovered Catalonia, and the barrier fortresses of Mons, Luxembourg and Kortrijk. The Duchy of Lorraine, which for many years had been in the possession of France, was restored to Leopold Joseph, a son of Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, and the Dutch were to be allowed to garrison some of the chief fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands, including Namur and Ypres. Louis undertook to recognize William III as king of England, and promised to give no further assistance to James II of England he abandoned his interference in the electorate of Cologne and also the claim which he had put forward to some of the lands of the Electorate of the Palatinate. [ 1 ]

The War of the Grand Alliance also played out in North America, where it was called King William's War. The French colonies of Acadia and New France (Canada), along with their Native allies (notably Abenaki, Pennacook, and Huron), fought with the Northern English colonies and their Native allies (notably Iroquois and Mohawk). In this theatre the French had been on the ascendant "all the English assaults on French possessions had been repulsed Fort Penobscot on the border of Acadia had been destroyed the frontiers of both New England and New York had been ravaged and forced back the English outposts in Newfoundland had been destroyed and the island virtually conquered." [ 2 ] In addition, throughout the war England's claims to the Hudson Bay had been severely contested in a series of French expeditions culminating in Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville's capture of York Factory shortly before the signing of the treaty. In spite of this the Treaty of Ryswick returned the territorial borders to where they had been before the war (status quo ante bellum). The Iroquois nation, deserted by their English allies, continued to make war on the French colonies until 1701 and the Great Peace of Montreal.


Watch the video: Ιωάννης Μάζης: Η αμφισβήτηση της Λωζάνης παραπέμπει στη Συνθήκη της Βιέννης (May 2022).


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