Stephanotis YP-4 - History

Stephanotis YP-4 - History

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(YP-4: 1. 66'0"; b. 15'2"; dr. 3'9")

C. G.-975 was transferred from the Coast Guard to the Navy in 1933, and she was renamed Stephanotis (YP-4). The district patrol vessel was assigned to the 1st Naval District and served there until 8 February 1945 when her name was struck from the Navy list. On 6 May 1946, she was transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal.

Stephanotis Wedding Vine

The ever-classic stephanotis is beautiful in bridal bouquets and can also be used in ceremony pieces or the bridal party banquet table with Stephanotis Wedding Vine. The dainty, but sturdy, tropical vine features clustered pure white blooms both full and semi-closed for a romantic garden party inspired look. Pair with simple table clothes and white candles for a charming feel.

Recommended delivery date: 2 days before your event

Vine length: 3 feet long

Symbolism: Stephanotis represents marital bliss.

  • If your event is Saturday suggested delivery day is Thursday.
  • Stephanotis Vine Greenery is available seasonally.*
  • Stephanotis Vine will be shipped with clusters of open and closed blooms.
  • At certain times of the year, flowers will be more abundant.
  • Since flowers are a product of Mother Nature and due to variation in monitor resolutions, the exact color tones of this flower may vary to some degree.

*Package contents and prices are based on availability and are subject to change due to weather and market conditions.

+Your flowers will arrive looking thirsty and sleepy. This is absolutely NORMAL. Please refer to our Flower Care tab on this product page for a descriptive process on care and handling instructions.

++In the event that a substitution may be necessary, we take the utmost care in assuring that your order is as similar to your original flower choice as possible. While we will always try to reach you if this situation arises, occasionally time will not allow for this, and flower substitutions may be shipped without verbal confirmation from you. In the case of centerpieces, flowers within the same color palette will be used if possible, even if this means substituting other kinds of flowers of equal or higher value.

**Returns will only be accepted if flowers arrive in poor condition. Returns will not be accepted for circumstances resulting from negligence.

  1. Upon arrival, please open the box and inspect the garlands.
  2. Keep the garlands in the box and store them in a cool dry place, away from direct sunlight, drafts or excessive heat. As long as they are in a cool place, there is no need to store them in the refrigerator.
  3. If the vine starts to look dry, mist with water. It is normal for the vine to shed.

FiftyFlowers uses FedEx or UPS for priority overnight delivery service. All deliveries should arrive by 5 pm on your chosen delivery date. Exact delivery times will depend on the service available to your address. Please contact FedEx or UPS to inquire about the guaranteed delivery time for your zip code.


All of the Galaxy Player models support 3-axis accelerometer. The Galaxy Player 4.2 also supports 3-axis gyroscope. [2]

Galaxy Player 50 (YP-G50)

The Galaxy Player 50 (not to be confused with Galaxy Player 5.0) was the first Samsung Android-based media player, announced at the 2010 IFA and released early 2011. It features a 3.2 inch 400 x 240 pixels TFT-LCD display, 8 or 16GB internal memory, a microSDHC slot, 1000mAh battery, Bluetooth 3.0, RDS FM tuner and 2 MP rear camera. It runs on Android 2.1 Eclair.

Galaxy Player 4.0 or Galaxy S WiFi 4.0 (YP-G1)

The Galaxy Player 4.0 features a 4" multi-touch capacitative touchscreen, a "Super Clear" LCD with 800x480 resolution (WVGA). It has 8 GB of internal flash storage, that can be expanded with a microSD card (up to 32 GB cards are supported). It has two cameras (a VGA front camera, and a 3.2 megapixel back camera), WiFi, FM radio, and a GPS, and runs Android 2.3.5 ("Gingerbread"). Development teams have created an unofficial Android 4.0 ("Ice Cream Sandwich") port. [3] Its design is almost the same of the Samsung Galaxy S phone (I9000) but with a lower resolution camera (3.2 MP instead of 5.0 MP) and without phone functions or 3G. The CPU is a Samsung Exynos 3110 Applications Processor.

Samsung announced that the Galaxy S WiFi 4.0 would be released in the first half of 2011, starting with the UK. [4] The Galaxy Player 4.0 and 5.0 launched in U.S. in October 2011. [5]

Galaxy Player 5.0 or Galaxy S WiFi 5.0 (YP-G70)

The Galaxy Player 5.0 features a micro-SD card slot allowing for up to an additional 32 GB of storage. The CPU is an Exynos 3110 1Ghz Application Processor. It has an estimated 60-hour battery life during music playback and 8 hours during video playback. As of now, the Galaxy Player 5.0 comes preloaded with Android 2.2.2 Froyo in Europe, [6] and Android 2.3.5 Gingerbread in the US. [7] Development teams have created an unofficial Android 4.0 ("Ice Cream Sandwich"), [8] Android 4.4 ("KitKat") [9] up to Android 5.1.1 ("Lollipop"). [10]

Galaxy Player 3.6 or Galaxy S WiFi 3.6 (YP-GS1)

The Galaxy Player 3.6 carries a 3.65" LCD TFT (with a resolution of 480×320) instead of the AMOLED which is used by Samsung in most of its phones. The internal storage is flash 8 GB that can be expanded via a microSD card. The CPU is a single core 1 GHz based on ARM Cortex-A8 based CPU core (OMAP3630). It has a removable battery. It runs on the Android 2.3 Gingerbread OS.

The player has a 2.0 MP camera on the back, GPS location services, and an accelerometer.

The player supports Wi-Fi (802.11b/g/n) as well as Bluetooth 3.0 (A2DP, AVRCP, OPP, PBAP).

Galaxy Player 4.2 or Galaxy S WiFi 4.2 (YP-GI1)

The Galaxy Player 4.2 has a 4.2" IPS display at 800 x 480, 1 GHz processor, front and rear cameras and Android 2.3 Gingerbread. It has a removable battery and microSD card slot.

Galaxy Player 5.8 (YP-GP1)

The Galaxy Player 5.8 has a 5.8 inch qHD LCD display at a resolution of 960 x 540, 1GB of RAM, dual-core 1 GHz processor, a 3.0 megapixel camera with no LED flash, and will ship with Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich, although some versions have been known to ship with Android 4.0.2. It has the same 2500 mAh battery as the Galaxy Player 5.0 and comes in 16 and 32 GB variants, with a microSD card slot supporting up to 32 GB of extra storage.

Galaxy 070 or Smart Home Phone 2 HD or 스마트홈 폰 HD mini (YP-GI2)

The Galaxy 070 features a 4.2 inch 800 x 480 pixels TFT LCD display, dual-core ARM Cortex A9 1.2 GHz CPU, Bluetooth 3.0, 1300 mAh battery, 8 GB internal memory and microSDXC slot. It runs on the Android 4.1 Jellybean. It was released in August 2013 in Korea only. It was only sold by Korea Telecom and marketed as a home phone with specific apps allowing SMS and calls via WiFi. It is the latest Galaxy Player released.


Violet, along with a number of other Dolls, arrive at the Shaher Observatory in order to help the scholars make copies of a number of rare books. Violet is paired with the scholar Leon, who initially dislikes her and Dolls in general. However, he is impressed with how quickly she works, and together, they finish a three-days worth work in a day. Eventually, he begins to soften up to Violet. He also invites her to view Alley's Comet with him, which only appears once every two hundred years, and she accepts. While the two stargaze, Leon explains that his father was also a scholar at the observatory but disappeared on an expedition. His mother then left home to search for him and never returned either, causing Leon to resent them and the concept of love. Violet, in turn, tells Leon about her devotion towards Gilbert, to which Leon realizes Violet is in love with Gilbert. The next morning, Violet is preparing to leave now that her job is complete. Leon sees her off and tells her that instead of waiting at the observatory for his parents to return, he'll start traveling the world like Violet to go look for them. As Violet leaves, Leon wonders if he'll ever encounter her again. ΐ]

Sometime after that, Leon began traveling around the world just like he had promised. Α] At one point, he met Violet again under the moonlight in a desolate land he did not even know the name of. When he asked her if she had memorized the name of at least a few stars, Violet nodded. Leon then thinks what an amazing day it is for a reunion, and asks Violet to spend some time watching the stars with him. Ώ]


Simple and graceful, our artificial Stephanotis flowers will provide a stunning injection of natural splendour in your home décor. Our silk Stephanotis flowers will lend itself to a wide range of interiors and will be an amazing accent in your décor. Go ahead and bring this bundle of vibrancy in your setting.

To really recharge your batteries and emphasize the style of your space, you need to bring this enticing selection of artificial Stephanotis flowers in your home or office space. A highly tranquil presence, these silk Stephanotis flowers bring a fresh outlook to the setting without overpowering it. They just stay in the background and let their subtle looks and feel weave the magic. Fresh, clean, modern and easy to work with, our faux Stephanotis flowers evoke a calm, laid back feel in the setting. So, if you have a busy lifestyle with a hectic household space, these beauties will let you have a moment.

If you’re looking for one decorative accessory to design your home with, then let it be our artificial Stephanotis flowers. Highly distinct flowers which will give you an exclusive living space, these silk Stephanotis flowers will spur creativity in your setting. A great way to create an ‘ideal’ home décor with a joyous vibe without spending much, our faux Stephanotis flowers will lend a delightfully refreshing look to your rooms and create a huge impact in the process. No matter where you display them, they will add style to your home and grab attention.


The Seversky Aircraft Company, which in 1939 changed its name to Republic, constructed a range of private venture, one-off variants of its P-35 design, featuring different powerplants and enhancements, designated AP-2, AP-7, AP-4 (which flew after the AP-7), AP-9, and XP-41. The series included a carrier-based version designated the NF-1 (Naval Fighter 1) that was also built. The most significant of these was the AP-4, which served as the basis for future Seversky/Republic aircraft. It featured fully retractable landing gear, flush riveting, and most significantly a Pratt & Whitney R-1830-SC2G engine with a belly-mounted turbo-supercharger, producing 1,200 hp (890 kW) and good high-altitude performance. The turbo-supercharger had been refined by Boeing as part of the development program for the B-17 Flying Fortress, and the improved performance it offered was of great interest to other aircraft manufacturers. [1]

The XP-41 and sole AP-4 were nearly identical, although the AP-4 was initially fitted with a large prop spinner and a tight-fitting engine cowling, as a testbed to evaluate means of improving the aerodynamics of radial-engined fighters, following similar experiments with the first production P-35. The AP-4's big spinner was later removed and a new tight cowling fitted. Unsurprisingly, these measures led to overheating problems. On 22 March 1939, the engine caught fire in flight, the pilot had to bail out, and the AP-4 was lost. Despite the loss of the prototype, the USAAC liked the turbo-supercharged AP-4 demonstrator enough to order 13 more in May 1939, designating them YP-43. [2]

YP-43 prototype Edit

The YP-43 differed from AP-4 in having a "razorback" fuselage with a tall spine extending back from the canopy. [3] The engine air intake was moved from the port wing to under the engine resulting in the distinctive ovoid cowling. The aircraft was powered by an R-1830-35 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine with a General Electric B-2 turbo-supercharger generating 1,200 hp and driving a three-blade variable-pitch propeller. Armament consisted of two synchronized .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in the cowl and a single .30 in (7.62 mm) machine gun in each wing. [1]

The first of 13 YP-43s was delivered in September 1940, the last in April 1941. Early testing revealed a strong tendency to yaw during takeoff and landing rolls, fixed by redesigning the tailwheel. Although the aircraft exceeded the initial USAAC performance requirements, by 1941 it was clearly obsolete, lacking maneuverability, armor, or self-sealing fuel tanks. The USAAC felt the basic P-35/P-43 design had exhausted its reserves for further improvement in performance and shifted its interest to the promising P-47. [4]

Production Edit

Production aircraft, identical to the YP-43 prototypes, were designated "Lancer" and were delivered between 16 May and 28 August 1941. Ongoing delays in the P-47 program resulted in USAAC ordering an additional 80 P-43J, with Pratt & Whitney R-2180-1 Twin Hornet engine rated at 1,400 hp (1,000 kW). The engine promised better high-altitude performance, and armament was upgraded with 0.50 in machine guns replacing the 0.30 in in the wings. The USAAC was sufficiently interested to assign the AP-4J variant an official designation P-44 Rocket. Combat reports from Europe indicated that the new type was already obsolete, consequently, the entire order was canceled on 13 September 1940, with no prototypes built.

Alexander Kartveli and his team focused their efforts on the advanced AP-10/XP-47 which eventually became the fabled P-47 Thunderbolt. [1] When the Pratt & Whitney R-2800 engine intended for the new P-47 was not yet available, it was decided to order 54 P-43s to keep the Republic production lines operating. An additional 125 P-43A-1s were ordered for China through the Lend-Lease program, originally intended to equip the Third American Volunteer Group (AVG). These initially differed in the Air Materiel Command specification from earlier P-43s in being armed with two 0.50 in machine guns in each wing and no fuselage guns, and having rudimentary armor and fuel tank protection. [5] This would have required a series of serious engineering changes. Reality intervened: actually, as delivered, the P-43A-1 had the same armament layout as the P-43As: four .50 in machine guns, two in the cowl and two in the wings. Externally, they were identical, and only the serial numbers distinguishes a P-43A from a P-43A-1. Many of these aircraft were fitted with cockpit armor before shipment westward from California in crates evidence is murky whether this additional armor came from Republic or was cobbled together after delivery. [6]

By 1942, a total of 272 P-43s were built, including all its variants, a remarkable number considering the original intention was to not build any. [5]

The Lend-Lease aircraft were delivered to China through Claire Chennault's American Volunteer Group, the Flying Tigers. Pilots involved in the ferrying flights commended the P-43 for its good high-altitude performance compared to the Curtiss P-40, good roll rate, and a radial engine without a vulnerable liquid cooling system. Apparently, [ citation needed ] several AVG pilots asked Chennault to keep some P-43s, but the request was denied due to the aircraft's lack of armor or self-sealing fuel tanks. In addition, the turbo-supercharger proved unreliable and the "wet wing" fuel tanks leaked constantly. [7] In April 1942, Robert Lee Scott Jr. — a USAAF pilot with the AVG [8] —photographed the peaks of Mt. Everest from 44,000 ft (13,000 m), attesting to the strengths of this aircraft. Also in April of 1942, veteran CAF fighter pilot Maj. Zheng Shaoyu, a survivor of many air battles including the "Zero-scourge" in the war against the Imperial Japanese invasion of China, was ferrying a P-43 back into China for renewed combat operations against the Japanese, when it suddenly caught fire causing his death in the ensuing crash. [9] [10]

The Japanese noted that the P-43's fuel tanks were easily punctured, making them easier to shoot down than P-40's. [11] The type was replaced by other aircraft in early 1944. Rudimentary protection added on the P-43A-1 was insufficient. [ citation needed ] In addition, the R-1830 engines were in high demand for the Douglas C-47 transport, effectively grounding the surviving aircraft.

The USAAC considered the P-43 and its variants obsolete from the start and used them only for training purposes. In fall 1942, all surviving USAAF (transitioned from USAAC in June 1941) P-43s were redesignated RP-43, indicating they were unfit for combat. [ citation needed ] Most of the aircraft that were not sent to China were modified for photo-reconnaissance duties and used for training. Eight P-43s (four P-43A-1s and four P-43Ds) were loaned to the Royal Australian Air Force in 1942 and served with No. 1 Photo Reconnaissance Unit. The RAAF flew many long range, high-altitude photo reconnaissance missions before the six survivors were returned to the USAAF in 1943. [12]


Major General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold became aware of the UK's jet program when he attended a taxiing demonstration of the Gloster E.28/39 in April 1941. The subject had been mentioned, but not in-depth, as part of the Tizard Mission the previous year. He requested and was given, the plans for the aircraft's powerplant, the Power Jets W.1, which he took back to the U.S. He also arranged for an example of the engine, the Whittle W.1X turbojet, to be flown to the U.S on 1 October in a Consolidated B-24 Liberator, [1] along with drawings for the more powerful W.2B/23 engine and a small team of Power Jets engineers. On 4 September, he offered the U.S. company General Electric a contract to produce an American version of the engine, which subsequently became the General Electric I-A. On the following day, he approached Lawrence Dale Bell, head of Bell Aircraft Corporation, to build a fighter to utilize it. Bell agreed and set to work on producing three prototypes. As a disinformation tactic, the USAAF gave the project the designation P-59A, to suggest it was a development of the unrelated Bell XP-59 fighter project which had been canceled. The design was finalized on 9 January 1942, and construction began. In March, long before the prototypes were completed, an order for 13 YP-59A pre-production aircraft was added to the contract. [2]

The P-59A had an oval cross-section, all-metal stressed skin semi-monocoque fuselage that housed a single pressurized cockpit. The mid-mounted, straight wing had two spars plus a false spar in the inner panel. The electrically-powered tricycle landing gear was attached to the center spar. The pair of General Electric J31 turbojets were positioned under the wing roots in streamlined nacelles. The armament was located in the nose of the aircraft two of the three XP-59As and most of the YP-59As had a pair of 37-millimeter (1.5 in) M10 autocannon. Later aircraft, including the production models, had one M10 autocannon and three 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) AN/M2 Browning heavy machine guns. The aircraft carried a total of 290 US gallons (1,100 l 240 imp gal) of fuel in four self-sealing tanks in the inner wing panels. Both production models could carry 1,590-US-gallon (6,000 l 1,320 imp gal) drop tanks under the wings. In addition, the P-59B was provided with a 66-US-gallon (250 l 55 imp gal) fuel tank in each outer wing panel. [3] [4]

The crated prototype had been built on the second floor of a disused Pierce-Arrow factory, but its components were too big to fit through any elevator and required a hole to be broken in the brick outer wall to remove the first XP-59A. It was shipped to Muroc Army Air Field (today, Edwards Air Force Base) in California on 12 September 1942 by train for flight testing. The aircraft first became airborne during high-speed taxiing tests on 1 October with Bell test pilot Robert Stanley at the controls, although the first official flight was made by Colonel Laurence Craigie the next day. While being handled on the ground, the aircraft was fitted with a dummy propeller to disguise its true nature. When heavy rains flooded Rogers Dry Lake at Muroc in March 1943, the second prototype was towed 35 mi (56 km) to Hawes Field, an auxiliary airfield of Victorville Army Airfield, later George Air Force Base, over a public road. After one flight on 11 March, security concerns caused the jet to transferred to nearby Harper Lake where it remained until 7 April. [5] [6]

Five of the Airacomets, a pair of XP-59As, two YP-59As, and a P-59B had open-air flight observer cockpits (similar to those of biplanes) fitted in the nose with a small windscreen, replacing the armament bay. The XP-59As were used for flight demonstrations and testing, but one of the latter pair was used as a "mother ship" for the other modified YP-59A during remote control trials in late 1944 and early 1945. After the drone crashed during take-off on 23 March, a P-59B was modified to serve as its replacement. [7] [8] During diving trials in 1944, one YP-59A was forced to make a belly landing and another crashed when its entire empennage broke away. [9]

Over the following months, tests on the prototypes and pre-production P-59s revealed a multitude of problems including poor engine response and reliability (common shortcomings of all early turbojets), poor lateral and directional stability at speeds over 290 mph (470 km/h), so that it tended to "snake" and was a poor gunnery platform. The performance was greatly hampered by the insufficient thrust from its engines that was far below expectations. The Army Air Force conducted combat trials against propeller-driven Lockheed P-38J Lightning and Republic P-47D Thunderbolt fighters in February 1944 and found that the older aircraft outperformed the jet. It, therefore, decided that the P-59 was best suited as a training aircraft to familiarize pilots with jet-engine aircraft. [10] [11]

Even as deliveries of the YP-59As began in July 1943, the USAAF had placed a preliminary order for 100 production machines as the P-59A Airacomet, the name having been chosen by Bell employees. This was confirmed on 11 March 1944 but was later cut to 50 aircraft on 10 October after the procurement bureaucracy had digested the earlier evaluation. [12] [13]

The 13 service test YP-59As had a more powerful engine than their predecessor, the General Electric J31, but the performance improvement was negligible, with top speed increased by only 5 mph and a reduction in the time they could be used before an overhaul was needed. One of these aircraft, the third YP-59A (S/n: 42-22611) was supplied to the Royal Air Force (receiving British serial RG362/G), in exchange for the first production Gloster Meteor I, EE210/G. [14] British pilots found that the aircraft compared very unfavorably with the jets that they were already flying. Two YP-59A Airacomets (42-108778 and 42-100779) were also delivered to the U.S. Navy where they were evaluated as the "YF2L-1" but were quickly found completely unsuitable for carrier operations. Three P-59Bs were transferred to the Navy in 1945–1946, although they kept their designations. The Navy used all five of its jets as trainers and for flight testing. [15]

Faced with their own ongoing difficulties, Bell eventually completed 50 production Airacomets, 20 P-59As and 30 P-59Bs deliveries of P-59As took place in the fall of 1944. [16] The P-59Bs were assigned to the 412th Fighter Group to familiarize AAF pilots with the handling and performance characteristics of jet aircraft. [17] While the P-59 was not a great success, the type did give the USAAF and the USN experience with the operation of jet aircraft, in preparation for the more advanced types that would shortly become available. [12]

Scold's Bridle

Gossiping women meet their match in the Scold's Bridle.

A bizarre form of punishment reserved exclusively for women was the wearing of the iron scold's bridle. Resembling a muzzle or cage for the head it had a padlock at the rear and a projecting spike that would have been held firmly inside the mouth when the bridle was closed.

The use of the bridle was first recorded in Scotland (1567) and the 'scolds' were presumably women whose talk was inappropriate or to use a modern legal term - 'libelous'. There are also records to indicate that part of the punishment could have involved the offender being lead around the town as part of the ritual humiliation.

Why the torture was reserved for women is unclear however references to the scold's bridle being applied at the husband's request raises the whole issue of female punishment throughout the ages and into the present day.

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The name and concept of "yellow pages" came about in 1883, when a printer in Cheyenne, Wyoming, working on a regular telephone directory, ran out of white paper and used yellow paper instead. [3] In 1886, Reuben H. Donnelley created the first official Yellow Pages directory. [4] [5]

Today, the expression yellow pages is used globally in both English-speaking and non-English speaking countries. In the United States, it refers to the category, while in some other countries it is a registered name and therefore a proper noun. The term Yellow Pages is not a registered name within the United States and is freely used by many companies. Telephone directories using the Internet domain name "" (where cc is the ccTLD) exist in 75 countries. [6] They are edited by many different phone companies and directory publishers, mostly independently.

A particular yellow pages is a print directory which provides an alphabetical listing of businesses within a specific geographical area (e.g. the Tampa Bay area, which are segregated under headings for similar types of businesses, such as plumbers). Traditionally these directories have been published by the local phone company, but there are numerous independent directory publishers. Some yellow pages publishers focus on a particular demographic (e.g. Christian yellow pages or business pages).

Yellow pages directories are usually published annually and distributed for free to all residences and businesses within a given coverage area. The majority of listings are plain and in small black text. The yellow-pages publishers profit by selling advertising space or listings under each heading. Advertising may be sold by a direct sales force or by approved agencies (CMR's). Available advertising space varies among publishers and ranges from bold names up to four color twin page ads ("double trucks").

In the United States, the predominant yellow pages are DEX One's DEX, the AT&T Real Yellow Pages, Yellowbook, and the Superpages.

Business listings used for publication are obtained by several methods. Local phone companies that publish yellow pages directories rely on their own customer lists and include business listings that are provided by incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs).

Advertising in yellow pages directories requires payment in full prior to printing or may be billed monthly over the life of the contract, which is usually 12 months. Typically, sales representatives help customers to design their ads and provide a proof copy for review and approval.

Yellow pages' print usage is reported to be declining with both advertisers and shoppers increasingly turning to Internet search engines and online directories. According to a study by Knowledge Networks/SRI, in 2007, print yellow pages were referenced 13.4 billion times, while Internet yellow pages references increased to 3.8 billion, up from 2006's 3.3 billion online searches. [7] As a result, most yellow pages publishers have attempted to create online versions of their print directories. These online versions are referred to as IYP or Internet yellow pages. Independent ad agencies or Internet marketing consultants can assist business owners in determining sound opportunities for yellow pages advertising and provide objective information on usage, possession and preferences.

Archived yellow pages and telephone directories are important tools in local historical research and trademark litigation. [8]

The "Walking Fingers" logo was created by Henry Alexander, [9] a New England artist. After graduating from the Swain School of Design in New Bedford, Massachusetts, Alexander began a freelance career as an illustrator and commercial designer. He formed a long association with the New England Telephone Company lasting thirty-one years. In 1962, he designed the "walking fingers" logo and within a year it became the national trademark for their yellow pages.

AT&T, the creator and owner of the most famous three-fingered version of the "Walking Fingers" logo, never applied for a trademark on the logo. While they eventually received a trademark on a different version of the logo, the version with the three fingers was not considered by AT&T to be proprietary and they in fact allowed any telephone directory to use it. [10] Throughout the 1970s, many cities ran television ads showing a disembodied hand "walking" across an open copy of the Yellow Pages, with the slogan "Let Your Fingers Do the Walking."

The Bell System later applied for a trademark on the logo but had their trademark denied on the grounds that it "had become a generic indicator of the yellow pages without regard to any particular source." [10] Shortly thereafter, Bell began using a trademarkable logo with a lightbulb instead of the walking fingers, but returned to the walking fingers two years later. [11]

In some countries, the familiar "walking fingers" logo is not protected as a trademark and may be used by anyone. This logo is used in varying forms by almost every yellow pages publisher however, there are companies that use it to imitate mainstream publishers. In Belgium, the Republic of Ireland, Israel and the Netherlands the directory, although using the yellow pages logo, is called "Golden Pages". [12] [13]

Online business directories are branded as IYP or Internet yellow pages. On a broader scale, they can be classified as vertical directories. There are consumer oriented and business oriented varieties. Providers of IYP offer online advertising.

According to several reports the search term "yellow pages" was in the top 5 highest revenue generator of all search terms in Google's AdWords program in 2010. Experian/Hitwise reported in January 2011 that the search term "yellow pages" was one of the top 50 search terms across all search engines and all search terms(millions of search terms). This made "yellow pages" one of the most searched for things on the Internet in 2011.

The Yellow Pages Association said in February 2011 that 75 percent of adults in the United States still used print yellow pages and that for every $1 in investment, businesses returned $15. [14]

IYP offers listings differently from standard search engines. Where search engines return results based on relevance to the true search term, IYP returns results based on a geographic area. [15]

IYP is classified as a local search directory which provides content with the added ability to refine the search to find the needed service. The search engine prioritizes local businesses in its results rather than the results being dominated by regional or national companies. All services offer paid advertising options which typically offer preferred placement on search results pages.

In later years, the yellow pages industry faced scrutiny from environmentalist groups who claim printed yellow pages are a wasteful resource, citing statistics that by 2011 nearly 70% of all Americans rarely or never used printed phone directories. [16] Other studies have found that a majority of consumers continue to use Yellow Pages. [ citation needed ] Approximately 58% of working U.S. adults said they use phone books at home, work or both, according to a 2013 survey by RingCentral that appeared in USA Today. [17]

The Product Stewardship Institute claims local governments spend $54 million a year to dispose of unwanted phone books and $9 million to recycle them. [18] Phone books use low grade glues and are therefore difficult to recycle, and they often clog recycling machinery. [ citation needed ] Conversely, publishers note that phone book directories are 100% recyclable and are made using soy-based and non-toxic inks, glues and dyes. [19]

In 2011, San Francisco became the first city in the United States to restrict yellow page distribution to people who opt in, [20] but was being sued in federal court by the Local Search Association on freedom of speech grounds. [21] According to the Sierra Club, 1.6 million phone books were distributed annually in San Francisco, producing 3600 tons of waste, $1 million in disposal costs, and 6180 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions. [22] In 2013, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed, and the Mayor signed, an ordinance that repealed the Yellow Pages Distribution Pilot Program (Ordinance 130186). [23]

Also in 2011, Yellow Pages Association and the Association of Directory Publishers started the Web site allowing anyone in the United States to choose not to receive directories. The site remains active in 2018. [14]

The 2009 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Municipal Solid Waste report classified directories as the smallest contributor of paper and paperboard products to the solid waste stream, representing only 0.3% – significantly less than all other paper product categories such as newspapers, magazines and books. [24] In 2010, the EPA stopped measuring directories separately from newspapers, indicating the minor impact of directories on municipal waste. [25]

Yellow Pages publishers' paper usage declined by nearly 60% between 2007–2012, and were projected to continue declining through 2013, according to the Pulp and Paper Products Council. [26] The EPA's 2011 Municipal Waste report showed that approximately 73% of phone directory, newspaper and mechanical papers were recycled. [27]

In September 2017, Yell, the publisher of Yellow Pages in the United Kingdom, announced that the business would be fully digitized from January 2019, ending the publication's 51-year run. [28] The last UK copies were posted out on 18 January 2019. [29]

The Irish publisher of the Golden Pages moved to an online-only model in 2017 after exiting Examinership. [30] The equivalent "Independent Directory" (similar to the UK's Thomson Local directories) produced by Independent News & Media ceased publication in 2009. [31]

Stephanotis YP-4 - History

Stephanotis was classed as a steam yacht. Although there are other uses for the term, we are talking here about a vessel owned privately and used for pleasure or non-commercial purposes. Steam yachts became popular with the rich and famous of Europe from the 1840s and remained so through to the early 20th century. The first British royal yacht was Victoria & Albert of 1843 - a paddle steamer.

Painting of the paddle Steamer Victoria & Albert by Louis Gabriel Eugne Isabey [7]

Although most of these yachts carried rigging and had sails, these were usually an auxiliary method of propulsion with most of the work being done by the steam engines. The sails could be used in the event of engine failure but were to a large extent included for show and as a naval tradition. Apart from the very last of them, they were coal-fired and many had compound engines - though some, like Stephanotis, had triple expansion steam engines. Some were able to lower the funnel when the engines were not in use to reduce wind resistance.

Clydeside was the primary centre for building these vessels with 190 of them being built in 43 Clyde shipyards between 1830 and 1935. Not all were Clyde-built though and Stephanotis was built at Leith.

Discovery of the First Owner of Stephanotis

Stephanotis came to my attention through posts on other forums by Merchant Seamen who took trips on her as cadets at the King Edward VII Nautical College. They knew her by her later name Wendorian.

When I first started researching the vessel little of her history was known - not even her original name or owner. Following up a tip by my friend George Robinson, I discovered her original name and that the first owner was Charles Arkcoll - a businessman from Chatham Intra in Kent. Arkcoll was a keen yachtsman and commissioned the build of his Stephanotis from Hawthorns of Leith.

Few Edwardian steam yachts still exist but there is one in Australia named Ena - built in Sydney in 1900 which is kept at the Australian National Maritime Museum, and another named Medea which is kept at the San Diego Maritime Museum. I had the pleasure of visiting Medea in 2018 and there are photographs and some information about her HERE.

Stephanotis Basic Data

Item Value
Type Steam Yacht
Managing owner Charles Arkcoll, Chatham House, Chatham Intra Kent
Builders Hawthorns & Co. Ltd.
Yard Junction Bridge Yard, Leith
Country UK
Yard number 95
Registry London
Official number 113718
Call sign VBNT (1910 information) GKKB (1940 information)
Classification society N/A
Gross tonnage 143
Net tonnage 31
Length 108 Ft 8" (or 124 Ft in other records)
Overall Length 135 ft including bowsprit
Breadth 17 ft 2 inches
Depth of Hold 9 Ft 6"
Draught 8 ft 9 inches
Engines Triple expansion steam engine with cylinders of bore 9", 14 1/2", 22" and stroke 15"
Engine builders Presumed to be Hawthorns & Co. the builders of the vessel as they were engine and boiler manufacturers
Engine Builder Works Leith
Engine Builder Country UK
Boilers Boilers operating at 190 psi
Power 33 NHP
Propulsion Single screw
Speed 8-9 Knots

Further information about the ship builder Hawthorns & Co., and similar vessels built by them, can be found HERE.

The data shown above should not be considered as definitive as records are contradictory. The information for small and private vessels was not recorded with the same degree of accuracy as for commercial vessels. The GRT figure quoted in the table above was taken from the Lloyds Register of Yachts for 1903. The Miramar Ship Index quotes simply "120 Tons".

Appropriation Books and Initial Registration

One useful source of information proved to be the Appropriation Books of the Register of Shipping. I am grateful to The Mariners List [48] for the following explanation of what they are:

In 1855, the system of registration of British shipping was re-organised so that each vessel was given an unique official number. One purpose of this was to distinguish between vessels which had the same name. The number remained with the ship throughout her life, even if her name or port changed, or if she was sold abroad and then re-registered. It was carved into, or welded onto, the main structure of the vessel.

The numbers were allotted centrally, in batches, to the hundreds of ports of registry throughout Britain and the British Colonies and then allocated to vessels by the port officials.

The initial allotments of numbers up to 40000 covered all ports, including colonial ports, and depended on the size of the port. So, 1 to 1000 were allotted to London, 1001 to 2000 to Liverpool, the next 500s to Shields and Sunderland, and so on. Allocation to vessels began at all ports on 16 April 1855 or soon after.

To deal with the thousands of ships which were already registered at that date, a vessel was allocated an official number when she first touched at a port of registry, even if that was not her home port. Thus official number 1 was allocated to a Goole registered vessel at London. A vessel's official number was added to her registration certificate and at some later date added to her entry in the shipping registers at her home port. This catching-up process was mostly completed by early in 1856, but continued into the 1860s.

Newly registered vessels were similarly allocated an official number on initial registration. Again, this was written prominently at the top of the new style shipping registers that were introduced at this time.

At each port, its allotted official numbers and vessel names were recorded in port Appropriation Books. These books can often be found with the shipping registers for the port, at local record offices.

Once a port's allotment was used up, further allotments were made as needed. Especially in the first year, allotments which had not been fully used were re-allocated to other ports.

The ports of registry made returns of vessel registration (register transcripts and annual returns) to the Board of Trade and these were then used to make up the central Appropriation Books. These ledgers contain a list of all the official numbers in order, with the vessel name against each, together with a few other details such as tonnage and port of registry. So far as we are aware, they contain the only single list of all the official numbers and the vessels to which they were allocated. These ledgers are at present held at the Registry of Shipping and Seamen in Cardiff.

The first official record regarding Stephanotis appears in the Appropriation Book for Rochester in 1903. Very little information was recorded.

Rochester Appropriation Book for 1903 [48]

Mercantile Navy List 1910

Rather more information is recorded in the Mercantile Navy List (1910) - an alphabetical list of British Registered Steam Vessels:

Extract from Mercantile Navy List (1910) [48]

Item Value
International code signal VBNT
Port and Year of Registry Rochester 1903
Length 108 Ft 8 Inches
Breadth 17 Ft 1 Inch
Depth of Hold 9 Ft 6 inches
Registered Net Tonnage 31
Registered Gross Tonnage 113
Horsepower of Engines and description of propeller 33 HP
Owner or Part Owner Charles Arkcoll, Chatham House, Chatham Intra, Kent


The Scotsman reported on 28 April 1903 that Stephanotis had completed her trials on the Firth of Forth.

Cutting from The Scotsman 28 April 1903 [25]

Mercantile Navy List 1940

The table below shows data recorded in 1940 that was different to that of 1910:

Item Value
Call sign GKKB
Port and Year of Registry London 1938
Owner or Part Owner Col. Robert G.Llewellyn, Tredilian Park, Abergavenny, Monmouthshire

Interior of the Vessel

Below are some photos of the interior of the vessel from an article in Country Life Magazine in 1960. The full article with further background information is reproduced HERE. As far as it is known, very little of the interior had changed since the vessel was built apart from the addition of more modern navigation aids and radio equipment.

The main saloon on Wendorian. [2] The main cabin on Wendorian. It was formerly the owner's cabin and is later the Chief Officer's. The mahogany-pillared four-poster bed is reputed to have once been occupied by the King of Spain. [2] The engine room of Wendorian. The original caption reads as follows: The top of the triple-expansion engine can be seen below the handrail and a 1903 charging-board panel is above on the bulkhead. [2]

Career Highlights

Date Event
14 Mar 1903 Launched
1903 Completed as Stephanotis for Charles Arkcoll
1913 Owner recorded as Mr. Douglas W. Graham of Hilston Park, Monmouthshire.
1914 Owner recorded as Norman Clark-Neill of 36, St.James Street London.
1919 Sold to Duque de Tarifa
1934 Owner recorded as the Executors of the late Duque de Tarifa
1935 Owner recorded as William Frothingham Roach
1939 Owner shown as Colonel R.G. Llewelyn and name shown as Wendorian
1947 Owner shown as Mr. George E. Milligen of East Rushton Manor, Stalham, Norfolk.
1951/2 Loaned to King Edward VII Nautical College by George Milligen for training purposes
17 Nov 1961 Taken to be broken up at New Waterway near Rotterdam - breakers not known.


The known owners of Stephanotis were:

  • The Brewer: Charles Arkcoll (1853-1912)
  • The Galloping Major: Douglas William Graham (1866-1936)
  • The Yachtsman: Norman Clark Neill (1884-1935)
  • The Hunter: Duque de Tarifa (1864-1931)
  • The Doctor: William Frothingham Roach (1877-1940)
  • The Organiser: Robert Godfrey Llewelyn (1893-1986)
  • The Collector: George Edward Milligen (1910-2004)
  • King Edward VII Nautical College

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