Robert Chatt

Robert Chatt

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Robert Chatt was born in Barnard Castle in August 1870. He played football for Cleator Moor and Middlesbrough Ironopolis before joining Aston Villa in August 1893.

Aston Villa won the First Division of the Football League championship in the 1893-94 season. The club scored 84 goals in 30 games. The main contributors included John Devey (20), Dennis Hodgetts (12) and Charlie Athersmith (10). Defenders, James Cowan (centre-half), Jack Reynolds (right-half) and Willie Groves (left-half) were also key members of the team. Chatt only played in 13 games that season.

Chatt became a regular in the 1894-95 season. Aston Villa finished in third place with Chatt scoring 10 goals in 28 games.

Aston Villa had victories over Derby County (2-1), Newcastle United (7-1), Nottingham Forest (6-2), Sunderland (2-1) to reach the 1895 FA Cup Final against West Bromwich Albion. Robert Chatt scored the only goal of the game after 39 seconds.

Aston Villa won the First Division title in 1895-96. However, Chatt only played in 17 games and found it difficult to play in an attack that scored 78 goals and included players such as Johnny Campbell (26), John Devey (16), John Cowan (9), Charlie Athersmith (8), John Cowan (9) and Dennis Hodgetts (3). As Philip Gibbons pointed out in Association Football in Victorian England: "Aston Villa had twice won the League Championship, as well as the FA Cup, during the three previous seasons, with a team generally acknowledged as the finest in the land."

Chatt decided to retire from professional football in June 1898. He now joined Stockton and later won a FA Amateur Cup-winner's medal with the club. He also played for South Shields and Willington Athletic before becoming the trainer of Doncaster Rovers (1904-1905). He held similar posts with Port Vale (1905-1906), Manchester City (1906-1916), South Shields (1919), Caerphilly (1921-1922) and Newport County (1922-1931).

Robert Chatt died in 1935.


The Chattanooga Fire Department has a long and rich history dating back to the Civil War. Past members of this department produced a book entitled "The History of the Chattanooga Fire Department," which includes very interesting text and authentic photos related to this department that covers a time span from 1871 to the mid-1970s.

To view this document, please click here.

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Fire Administration
910 Wisdom Street (map)
Chattanooga, TN 37406
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Fire Prevention Bureau
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Chattanooga, TN 37406
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Robert Mitchum was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, on August 6, 1917, into a Norwegian-Irish Methodist family. [2] His mother, Ann Harriet Gunderson, was a Norwegian immigrant and sea captain's daughter his father, James Thomas Mitchum, was a shipyard and railroad worker of Irish descent. [3] His older sister, Annette (known as Julie Mitchum during her acting career), was born in 1914. Their father, James Mitchum, was crushed to death in a railyard accident in Charleston, South Carolina, in February 1919. Robert was one year old, and Annette was not yet five. Their mother was awarded a government pension, and soon realized she was pregnant. Her third child, John, was born in September of that year. Ann married again to Lieutenant Hugh "The Major" Cunningham Morris, a former Royal Naval Reserve officer. Ann and Morris had a daughter together, Carol Morris, born July 1927, on the family farm in Delaware. When all of the children were old enough to attend school, Ann found employment as a linotype operator for the Bridgeport Post. [4]

As a child, Mitchum was known as a prankster, often involved in fistfights and mischief. When he was 12, his mother sent him to live with her parents in Felton, Delaware the boy was promptly expelled from middle school for scuffling with the principal. A year later, in 1930, he moved in with his older sister Annette, in New York's Hell's Kitchen. After being expelled from Haaren High School, he left his sister and traveled throughout the country, hopping on railroad cars, [5] taking a number of jobs, including ditch-digging for the Civilian Conservation Corps and professional boxing. At age 14 in Savannah, Georgia, he said he was arrested for vagrancy and put on a local chain gang. [5] By Mitchum's own account, he escaped and returned to his family in Delaware. During this time, while recovering from injuries that nearly cost him a leg, he met Dorothy Spence, whom he would later marry. He soon went back on the road, eventually "riding the rails" to California. [6]

Mitchum arrived in Long Beach, California, in 1936, staying again with his sister, now going by the name of Julie. She had moved to the West Coast in the hope of acting in movies, and the rest of the Mitchum family soon joined them. During this time, Mitchum worked as a ghostwriter for astrologer Carroll Righter. Julie convinced him to join the local theater guild with her. At The Players Guild of Long Beach, Mitchum worked as a stagehand and occasional bit-player in company productions. He also wrote several short pieces which were performed by the guild. According to Lee Server's biography (Robert Mitchum: Baby, I Don't Care), Mitchum put his talent for poetry to work writing song lyrics and monologues for Julie's nightclub performances.

In 1940, he returned to Delaware to marry Dorothy Spence, and they moved back to California. He gave up his artistic pursuits at the birth of their first child James, nicknamed Josh, and two more children, Chris and Petrine, followed. Mitchum found steady employment as a machine operator during wartime era WWII, with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, but the noise of the machinery damaged his hearing. [6] [7] He also suffered a nervous breakdown (which resulted in temporary blindness), due to job-related stress. [8] He then sought work as a film actor, performing initially as an extra and in small speaking parts. His agent got him an interview with Harry Sherman, the producer of Paramount's Hopalong Cassidy western film series, which starred William Boyd Mitchum was hired to play minor villainous roles in several films in the series during 1942 and 1943. He went uncredited as a soldier in the Mickey Rooney 1943 film The Human Comedy. His first credit came in 1943 as a Marine private serving under a commanding officer and star of the film Randolph Scott in a Marine Raider unit in the Pacific Island war film Gung Ho! [9]

Mitchum continued to find work as an extra and supporting actor in numerous productions for various studios. After impressing director Mervyn LeRoy during the making of Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, Mitchum signed a seven-year contract with RKO Radio Pictures. He was groomed for B-Western stardom in a series of Zane Grey adaptations. [6]

Following the moderately successful Western Nevada, RKO lent Mitchum to United Artists for The Story of G.I. Joe (1945). In the film, he portrayed war-weary officer Bill Walker (based on Captain Henry T. Waskow), who remains resolute despite the troubles he faces. The film, which followed the life of an ordinary soldier through the eyes of journalist Ernie Pyle (played by Burgess Meredith), became an instant critical and commercial success. Shortly after filming, Mitchum was drafted into the United States Army, serving at Fort MacArthur, California, as a medic. At the 1946 Academy Awards, The Story of G.I. Joe was nominated for four Oscars, including Mitchum's only nomination for Best Supporting Actor. He finished the year with a Western (West of the Pecos) and a story of returning Marine veterans (Till the End of Time), before filming in a genre that came to define Mitchum's career and screen persona: film noir.

Film noir Edit

Mitchum was initially known for his work in film noir. His first foray into the genre was a supporting role in the 1944 B-movie When Strangers Marry, about newlyweds and a New York City serial killer. Undercurrent, another of Mitchum's early noir films, featured him as a troubled, sensitive man entangled in the affairs of his brother (Robert Taylor) and his brother's suspicious wife (Katharine Hepburn). John Brahm's The Locket (1946) featured Mitchum as bitter ex-boyfriend to Laraine Day's femme fatale. Raoul Walsh's Pursued (1947) combined Western and noir styles, with Mitchum's character attempting to recall his past and find those responsible for killing his family. Crossfire (also 1947) featured Mitchum as a member of a group of World War II soldiers, one of whom kills a Jewish man. It featured themes of anti-Semitism and the failings of military training. The film, directed by Edward Dmytryk, earned five Academy Award nominations. [6]

Following Crossfire, Mitchum starred in Out of the Past (also called Build My Gallows High), directed by Jacques Tourneur and featuring the cinematography of Nicholas Musuraca. Mitchum played Jeff Markham, a small-town gas-station owner and former investigator, whose unfinished business with gambler Whit Sterling (Kirk Douglas) and femme fatale Kathie Moffett (Jane Greer) comes back to haunt him.

On September 1, 1948, after a string of successful films for RKO, Mitchum and actress Lila Leeds were arrested for possession of marijuana. [10] The arrest was the result of a sting operation designed to capture other Hollywood partiers as well, but Mitchum and Leeds did not receive the tipoff. After serving a week at the county jail (he described the experience to a reporter as being "like Palm Springs, but without the riff-raff"), Mitchum spent 43 days (February 16 to March 30) at a Castaic, California, prison farm. Life photographers were permitted to take photos of him mopping up in his prison uniform. [11] The arrest inspired the exploitation film She Shoulda Said No! (1949), which starred Leeds. [12] The conviction was later overturned by the Los Angeles court and district attorney's office on January 31, 1951, after being exposed as a setup.

Despite, or because of, Mitchum's troubles with the law and his studio, his films released immediately after his arrest were box-office hits. Rachel and the Stranger (1948) featured Mitchum in a supporting role as a mountain man competing for the hand of Loretta Young, the indentured servant and wife of William Holden. In the film adaptation of John Steinbeck's novella The Red Pony (1949), he appeared as a trusted cowhand to a ranching family. He returned to film noir in The Big Steal (also 1949), where he reunited with Jane Greer in an early Don Siegel film.

Career in the 1950s and 1960s Edit

In Where Danger Lives (1950), Mitchum played a doctor who comes between a mentally unbalanced Faith Domergue and cuckolded Claude Rains. The Racket was a noir remake of the early crime drama of the same name and featured Mitchum as a police captain fighting corruption in his precinct. The Josef von Sternberg film, Macao (1952), had Mitchum as a victim of mistaken identity at an exotic resort casino, playing opposite Jane Russell. Otto Preminger's Angel Face was the first of three collaborations between Mitchum and British stage actress Jean Simmons. In this film, she played an insane heiress who plans to use young ambulance driver Mitchum to kill for her.

Mitchum was fired from Blood Alley (1955), due to his conduct, reportedly having thrown the film's transportation manager into San Francisco Bay. According to Sam O'Steen's memoir Cut to the Chase, Mitchum showed up on-set after a night of drinking and tore apart a studio office when they did not have a car ready for him. Mitchum walked off the set of the third day of filming Blood Alley, claiming he could not work with the director. Because Mitchum was showing up late and behaving erratically, producer John Wayne, after failing to obtain Humphrey Bogart as a replacement, took over the role himself. [13] [14]

Following a series of conventional Westerns and films noirs, as well as the Marilyn Monroe vehicle River of No Return (1954), Mitchum appeared in Charles Laughton's only film as director: The Night of the Hunter (1955). Based on a novel by Davis Grubb, the thriller starred Mitchum as a monstrous criminal posing as a preacher to find money hidden by his cellmate in the cellmate's home. His performance as Reverend Harry Powell is considered by many to be one of the best of his career. [15] [16] Stanley Kramer's melodrama Not as a Stranger, also released in 1955, was a box-office hit. The film starred Mitchum against type, as an idealistic young doctor, who marries an older nurse (Olivia de Havilland), only to question his morality many years later. However, the film was not well received, with most critics pointing out that Mitchum, Frank Sinatra, and Lee Marvin were all too old for their characters. Olivia de Havilland received top billing over Mitchum and Sinatra.

On March 8, 1955, Mitchum formed DRM (Dorothy and Robert Mitchum) Productions to produce five films for United Artists four films were produced. [17] The first film was Bandido (1956). Following a succession of average Westerns and the poorly received Foreign Intrigue (1956), Mitchum starred in the first of three films with Deborah Kerr. The John Huston war drama Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison, starred Mitchum as a Marine corporal shipwrecked on a Pacific Island with a nun, Sister Angela (Deborah Kerr), as his sole companion. In this character study, they struggle to resist the elements and the invading Japanese army. The film was nominated for two Academy Awards, including Best Actress and Best Adapted Screenplay. For his role, Mitchum was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor. In the WWII submarine classic The Enemy Below (1956), Mitchum gave a strong performance as U.S. Naval Lieutenant Commander Murrell, the captain of a U.S. Navy destroyer who matches wits with a German U-boat captain Curt Jurgens, who starred with Mitchum again in the legendary 1962 movie The Longest Day. The film won an Oscar for Special Effects. [18]

Thunder Road (1958), the second DRM Production, was loosely based on an incident in which a driver transporting moonshine was said to have fatally crashed on Kingston Pike in Knoxville, Tennessee, somewhere between Bearden Hill and Morrell Road. According to Metro Pulse writer Jack Renfro, the incident occurred in 1952 and may have been witnessed by James Agee, who passed the story on to Mitchum. He starred in the movie, produced, co-wrote the screenplay, and is rumored to have directed much of the film. It costars his son James, as his on screen brother, in a role originally intended for Elvis Presley. [19] Mitchum also co-wrote (with Don Raye) the theme song, "The Ballad of Thunder Road".

He returned to Mexico for The Wonderful Country (1959) and Ireland for A Terrible Beauty/The Night Fighters for the last of his DRM Productions. [20]

Mitchum and Kerr reunited for the Fred Zinnemann film, The Sundowners (1960), where they played husband and wife struggling in Depression-era Australia. Opposite Mitchum, Kerr was nominated for yet another Academy Award for Best Actress, while the film was nominated for a total of five Oscars. Mitchum was awarded that year's National Board of Review award for Best Actor for his performance. The award also recognized his superior performance in the Vincente Minnelli Western drama Home from the Hill (also 1960). He was teamed with former leading ladies Kerr and Simmons, as well as Cary Grant, for the Stanley Donen comedy The Grass Is Greener the same year.

Mitchum's performance as the menacing rapist Max Cady in Cape Fear (1962) brought him further renown for playing cold, predatory characters. The 1960s were marked by a number of lesser films and missed opportunities. Among the films Mitchum passed on during the decade were John Huston's The Misfits (the last film of its stars Clark Gable and Marilyn Monroe), the Academy Award-winning Patton, and Dirty Harry. The most notable of his films in the decade included the war epics The Longest Day (1962) and Anzio (1968), the Shirley MacLaine comedy-musical What a Way to Go! (1964), and the Howard Hawks Western El Dorado (1967), a remake of Rio Bravo (1959), in which Mitchum took over Dean Martin's role of the drunk who comes to the aid of John Wayne. [6] He teamed with Martin for the 1968 Western 5 Card Stud, playing a homicidal preacher.

One of the lesser-known aspects of Mitchum's career was his foray into music as a singer. Critic Greg Adams writes, "Unlike most celebrity vocalists, Robert Mitchum actually had musical talent." [21] Mitchum's voice was often used instead of that of a professional singer when his character sang in his films. Notable productions featuring Mitchum's own singing voice included Rachel and the Stranger, River of No Return, and The Night of the Hunter. After hearing traditional calypso music and meeting artists such as Mighty Sparrow and Lord Invader while filming Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison in the Caribbean islands of Tobago, he recorded Calypso – is like so . in March 1957. On the album, released through Capitol Records, he emulated the calypso sound and style, even adopting the style's unique pronunciations and slang. A year later, he recorded a song he had written for Thunder Road, titled "The Ballad of Thunder Road". The country-style song became a modest hit for Mitchum, reaching number 69 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart. The song was included as a bonus track on a successful reissue of Calypso . and helped market the film to a wider audience. [6]

Although Mitchum continued to use his singing voice in his film work, he waited until 1967 to record his follow-up record, That Man, Robert Mitchum, Sings. The album, released by Nashville-based Monument Records, took him further into country music, and featured songs similar to "The Ballad of Thunder Road". "Little Old Wine Drinker Me", the first single, was a top-10 hit at country radio, reaching number nine there, and crossed over onto mainstream radio, where it peaked at number 96. Its follow-up, "You Deserve Each Other", also charted on the Billboard Country Singles chart. He sang the title song to the Western Young Billy Young, made in 1969.

Albums Edit

Year Album U.S. Country Label
1957 Calypso—is like so . Capitol
1967 That Man Robert Mitchum . Sings 35 Monument

Singles Edit

Year Single Chart positions Album
U.S. Country U.S.
1958 "The Ballad of Thunder Road" 62 That Man Robert Mitchum . Sings
1962 "The Ballad of Thunder Road" (re-release) 65
1967 "Little Old Wine Drinker Me" 9 96
"You Deserve Each Other" 55

Mitchum made a departure from his typical screen persona with the 1970 David Lean film Ryan's Daughter, in which he starred as Charles Shaughnessy, a mild-mannered schoolmaster in World War I–era Ireland. At the time of filming, Mitchum was going through a personal crisis and planned to commit suicide. Aside from a personal crisis, his recent films had been critical and commercial flops. Screenwriter Robert Bolt told him that he could commit suicide after the film was finished and that he would personally pay for his burial. [22] Though the film was nominated for four Academy Awards (winning two) and Mitchum was much publicized as a contender for a Best Actor nomination, he was not nominated. George C. Scott won the award for his performance in Patton, a project Mitchum had rejected for Ryan's Daughter.

The 1970s featured Mitchum in a number of well-received crime dramas. The Friends of Eddie Coyle (1973) had the actor playing an aging Boston hoodlum caught between the Feds and his criminal friends. Sydney Pollack's The Yakuza (1974) transplanted the typical film noir story arc to the Japanese underworld. He also appeared in 1976's Midway about an epic 1942 World War II battle. Mitchum's stint as an aging Philip Marlowe in the Raymond Chandler adaptation Farewell, My Lovely (1975) was sufficiently well received by audiences and critics for him to reprise the role in 1978's The Big Sleep.

In 1982, Mitchum played Coach Delaney in the film adaptation of playwright/actor Jason Miller's 1973 Pulitzer Prize-winning play That Championship Season.

At the premiere for That Championship Season, Mitchum, while intoxicated, assaulted a female reporter and threw a basketball that he was holding (a prop from the film) at a female photographer from Time magazine, injuring her neck and knocking out two of her teeth. [23] [24] She sued him for $30 million for damages. [24] The suit eventually "cost him his salary from the film." [23]

That Championship Season may have indirectly led to another debacle for Mitchum several months later. In a February 1983 Esquire interview, he made several racist, anti-Semitic and sexist statements, including, when asked if the Holocaust occurred, responded "so the Jews say." [23] [25] Following the widespread negative response, he apologized a month later, saying that his statements were "prankish" and "foreign to my principle." He claimed that the problem had begun when he recited a racist monologue from his role in That Championship Season, the writer believing the words to be his own. Mitchum, who claimed that he had only reluctantly agreed to the interview, then decided to "string. along" the writer with even more incendiary statements. [25]

Mitchum expanded to television work with the 1983 miniseries The Winds of War. The big-budget Herman Wouk story aired on ABC, starring Mitchum as naval officer "Pug" Henry and Victoria Tennant as Pamela Tudsbury, and examined the events leading up to America's involvement in World War II. He returned to the role in 1988's War and Remembrance, [6] which continued the story through the end of the war.

In 1984, Mitchum entered the Betty Ford Center in Palm Springs, California for treatment of a drinking problem. [26]

He played George Hazard's father-in-law in the 1985 miniseries North and South, which also aired on ABC.

Mitchum starred opposite Wilford Brimley in the 1986 made-for-TV movie Thompson's Run. A hardened con (Mitchum), being transferred from a federal penitentiary to a Texas institution to finish a life sentence as a habitual criminal, is freed at gunpoint by his niece (played by Kathleen York). The cop (Brimley) who was transferring him, and has been the con's lifelong friend and adversary for over 30 years, vows to catch the twosome.

In 1987, Mitchum was the guest-host on Saturday Night Live, where he played private eye Philip Marlowe for the last time in the parody sketch, "Death Be Not Deadly". The show ran a short comedy film he made (written and directed by his daughter, Trina) called Out of Gas, a mock sequel to Out of the Past. (Jane Greer reprised her role from the original film.) He also was in Bill Murray's 1988 comedy film, Scrooged.

In 1991, Mitchum was given a lifetime achievement award from the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, in the same year he received the Telegatto award and in 1992 the Cecil B. DeMille Award from the Golden Globe Awards. [6]

Mitchum continued to act in films until the mid-1990s, such as in Jim Jarmusch's Dead Man, and he narrated the Western Tombstone. He also appeared, in contrast to his role as the antagonist in the original, as a protagonist police detective in Martin Scorsese's remake of Cape Fear, but the actor gradually slowed his workload. His last film appearance was a small but pivotal role in the television biographical film, James Dean: Race with Destiny, playing Giant director George Stevens. His last starring role was in the 1995 Norwegian movie Pakten. [6]

A lifelong heavy smoker, Mitchum died on July 1, 1997, in Santa Barbara, California, due to complications of lung cancer and emphysema. [3] He was five weeks shy of his 80th birthday. His body was cremated and his ashes scattered at sea, though there is a plot marker in the Odd Fellows Cemetery in Delaware. He was survived by his wife of 57 years, Dorothy Mitchum (May 2, 1919 – April 12, 2014, Santa Barbara, California, aged 94) [27] his sons, actors James Mitchum and Christopher Mitchum and his daughter, writer Petrine Day Mitchum. His grandchildren, Bentley Mitchum and Carrie Mitchum, are actors, as was his younger brother, John, who died in 2001. Another grandson, Kian, is a successful model. [28]

Mitchum is regarded by some critics as one of the finest actors of the Golden Age of Hollywood. Roger Ebert called him "the soul of film noir." Mitchum, however, was self-effacing in an interview with Barry Norman for the BBC about his contribution to cinema, Mitchum stopped Norman in mid flow and in his typical nonchalant style, said, "Look, I have two kinds of acting. One on a horse and one off a horse. That's it." He had also succeeded in annoying some of his fellow actors by voicing his puzzlement at those who viewed the profession as challenging and hard work. He is quoted as having said in the Barry Norman interview that acting was actually very simple and that his job was to "show up on time, know his lines, hit his marks, and go home". [29] [30] Mitchum had a habit of marking most of his appearances in the script with the letters "n.a.r.", which meant "no action required", which critic Dirk Baecker has construed as Mitchum's way of reminding himself to experience the world of the story without acting upon it. [31]

AFI's 100 Years. 100 Stars lists Mitchum as the 23rd-greatest male star of classic Hollywood cinema. AFI also recognized his performance as the menacing rapist Max Cady and Reverend Harry Powell as the 28th and 29th greatest screen villains, respectively, of all time as part of AFI's 100 Years. 100 Heroes and Villains. He provided the voice of the famous American Beef Council commercials that touted "Beef . it's what's for dinner", from 1992 until his death.

A "Mitchum's Steakhouse" operated in Trappe, Maryland, [32] where Mitchum and his family lived from 1959 to 1965.

Image Gallery

Never before shared views of Cameron Hill's former residents.

A large congregation at Alton Park in 1933.

Aerial view from 1970 vs. 2021

Glass St. and Boyce Street Car

The Vote for Public Power - March 12, 1935

The rediscovered origin of a home in Hill City.

Forty students named from an 1899 class photo.

In 1926, the city's Commissioner of Streets and future 5-term mayor defeated Georgia's blockade of Broad Street.

Past vs. Present View - 3200 block of Brainerd Road

A new found detailed view from the winter of 1863-64.

A look back with unique and memorable photos

A mostly forgotten story of embattled judges, sheriffs, and the county commissioners who went to jail for the cause

Fifteen remarkable photos from a long-forgotten picnic destination.

Early aviation promotor Ben King kept a scrapbook during his time at Chattanooga's first commercial airport - Marr

EPB began serving Chattanooga as The Electric Power Board in 1939. Its backstory is a unique and fascinating view.

People, porches, and the origin of Lindsay Street

A timely look back at the construction of the I-75/24 Split at Chattanooga

Almost forgotten: The King's Bridge 1872-1917

Historic documents reveal facts about the early settlers of Ross's Landing

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Special Collections

Perry Mayo Collection

History Shared: Perry Mayo generously donated a box of medium format black & white negatives. The photos were likely taken from the mid-1950s through the early 1960s. They capture some of the most active periods of infrastructure change in Chattanooga's history since the Civil War.

Stokes Photos

In 1922, his obituary described him as ‘one of the most prominent photographers of the city.’

Remarkably, a significant set of his photo collection has survived three generations. Stokes uniquely featured landmarks, buildings, and historic vistas.

Glass Plate Negatives

Glass plate negatives captured over 100 years ago represent daily life, homes, friends, and landmarks that are difficult to place in our current landscapes.

Here we see young men and women with gleams in their eyes - great grandmothers and great grandfathers in their prime around 1900. While all of their lives have come and gone, we get a remarkable glimpse into their world.

The Battles

Lookout Mountain

On November 24, 1863, the ordinary fog of war was augmented by a thick mist that hung over Lookout Mountain all day. The ensuing conflict would come to be known as The Battle Above the Clouds.


Gaining control of Wauhatchie, a junction of the Nashville and Trenton railroads, gave the union control of its short supply lines and enabled them to quickly resupply the starving troops in Chattanooga.

Missionary Ridge

On November 25, 1863, troops under the command of General George H. Thomas charged the confederate rifle pits at the base of Missionary Ridge and without waiting for orders scaled the heights in one of the great charges of the war.

Orchard Knob

From his vantage point on Orchard Knob, General Ulysses S. Grant directed the Army of the Cumberland as it advanced against Missionary Ridge on November 25, 1863.

Brown’s Ferry

On the morning of October 27, 1863, Union forces silently glided down the Tennessee River and surprised pickets at Brown’s Ferry opening the way for the famous Cracker Line supply route.

Shooting the rabbit

Dean Cundey, cinematographer: We had 3D maquettes—sculpted rubber posable figures—of Roger or the weasels or the other toon characters , all full-sized according to how they were supposed to look in the film. We’d rehearse the scene with the maquettes, either Bob [Zemeckis] or I manipulating them to move through the scene so the actors could visualize where to look as if they were really there.

Then we’d choose one take so the animators after the fact could look at it and figure out where Roger would have to be, whether the camera’s panning or moving across the floor or whatever so the animators had a reference for what the action was supposed to be, what the characters were supposed to be doing. It was a big help for creating the interactivity as well as a big help to the animators.

Joanna Cassidy, Dolores: Sometimes it required a lot of takes and we got to see some of the drawings along the way.

Jeffrey Price, screenwriter: It was so expensive. We had to really think out the whole thing, and there wasn’t a lot of waste. There was maybe one scene that was cut out in the movie, but we had to think it all the way through.

We’d written a few drafts in 1980 and 1981 and then left the project. Bob Zemeckis wanted to do the movie back then but he was kind of in movie jail. After he went off and made Romancing the Stone and Back to the Future he was out of jail and looking around for his next project.

[Steven] Spielberg gave him a different version of the script but he remembered our version and went back to find it, which is every writer’s dream—that someday they’ll realize just how great our work was and come find us again. But at that point nothing had really been done. Spielberg had been developing it so I’m sure he had some ideas about how it could work technically. It was when we were in production we were told we had to cut some stuff out of the script because everybody by then had a pretty good idea of what it was really costing.

Back at the turn of the last century

Marchand’s life story is quite the tale. He was born in Amiens, a small town in the north of France, in 1911, the same year as Ginger Rogers, Ronald Reagan and former French president Georges Pompidou.

For many of us, first memories are formed around the age of six or seven. But for some, earlier more intense moments have the ability to get lodged. For Marchand, it’s the memory of German troops invading his hometown during the First World War. For his own safety he was whisked away to a farm in the Rhone-Alps, a safehaven where, at the tender age of about four, he worked as a farm hand, ducking below the cows to clean dirt from them.

At the age of 14, he took up cycling, building his own bike — a hodgepodge of parts he DIYed together. His training grounds were the roads around Paris and the famous Velodrome d’Hiver, a track that no longer stands, but that has its own place in history.

“At the time cycling was the king sport,” Marchand explains. “Six-day track racing attracted enormous crowds.” In those days a capacity crowd could reach 20,000 spectators.

The Velodrome d’Hiver has a much darker history too. In July 1942 the venue’s keys were seized from then-owner Jacques Goddet (the director of the Tour de France at the time) and used by the Nazis to imprison 13,152 Jews before they were sent to internment camps and later, to Auschwitz.

During the Second World War Marchand spent time in a prisoner of war camp. It’s not a period he likes to dwell on. Once home from war, it wasn’t long until he found himself back on the bike, and riding as a professional.

His most significant result came in 1946 at the Grand Prix des Nations. Local knowledge obviously helped — the race started in Versailles and covered 142km on the roads of the Ill-des-France, Marchand’s longtime training ground. Back then the race was regarded as the unofficial world time trial championships. The winner that day was a certain Fausto Coppi. Marchand came in seventh.

Come 1947 and change was in the air. Marchand had initially planned on moving to Australia for work but his plans were soon scuppered due to the closure of Australian ports. The way Marchand tells it, there was a sense of fear that the Japanese would attempt a follow-up to their 1942 attack on Darwin. Research seems to reveal that mass minesweeping was underway at the time, clearing thousands of undetonated mines that had been planted in the waters surrounding ports. That operation lasted until 1948.

Instead of heading to Australia, Marchand, with the help of his grandmother and grandfather, applied for a Venezuelan visa. Soon enough he was on his way to South America.

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If you have not kept the backup of your IMO chat content then in such case, you can use third-party software to retrieve IMO app data.

Let me tell you that when you received and viewed IMO messages, pictures, video or audio files, it might generate some cache files on your phone. Then after when you delete or when these chats in IMO app gets deleted, then you can immediately use Android Data Recovery tool which is an appropriate IMO Chat Recovery Software in order to retrieve them back by extracting the cache files.

The best part about this software is that it is available for both Windows and Mac computer and it support all Android phone and tablets including Samsung, Xiaomi, HTC, Sony, Google Pixel, Moto, Lenovo, Oppo, etc.

This Android recovery tool for IMO app will help you to recover deleted or lost IMO.IM chat history and other IMO App data content like photos, videos, audio and other media files.

Also note that this IMO app recovery program for Android is a free-to-try before-you-buy. So, you can download the trial version for free, scan your device and check whether it help you in recovering the IMO chat messages in the preview screen.

It may not work 100% to recover chat messages (however trying costs nothing), but it can help you to recover chats screenshots, photos, videos, audio files, gif images that you have deleted or lost by accident on your Android device.

Note: Stop using your Android phone or tablet after losing the chat messages. And do not add any new data on it, as adding new data will overwrite the existing data and hence the chance for recovery will decrease.

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Steps To Recover Deleted or Lost IMO Chat Data From Android

Here is the complete steps to recover IMO Chat data from Android by using Android Data Recovery software.

From the late 1960s to the early 1980s, Chattanooga was known as America's dirtiest city. By 1982, city residents and leaders were tired of the bad reputation of the city, and an $850 million plan was devised to revitalize the city's downtown and riverfront by the year 2000.

In 1986 the River City Company was formed to promote, encourage, and assist local economic development along 22 miles of river frontage and in the central business district. It was succeeded by a new agency formed in 1993 when River City Company merged with Partners for Economic Progress, forming a public-private economic development agency called RiverValley Partners. Also in 1986, the Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise Housing Program was founded to make housing affordable for local residents and to eliminate substandard housing.

In the 1990s, Chattanooga Venture, a community think tank, was begun to introduce new programs for local residents. In 1991 the Target ➖ Plan, an environmental initiative—the first of its kind in the country—was established to deal with education, business development, and community action in a comprehensive, coordinated manner. At the end of the century, Chattanooga's focus on sustainable development centers and creating an environment that would attract and retain companies that provide good jobs in businesses that would continue to grow in the twenty-first century. Today, Chattanooga is realizing those goals with a new focus enhancing its allure for conventioneers, tourists, and Chattanoogans alike through the completion of several major renovation projects throughout the city.

Historical Information: Chattanooga-Hamilton County Bicentennial Library, Local History and Genealogical Collections, 1001 Broad Street, Chattanooga, TN 37402 telephone (423)757-5317

Watch the video: CATT - Moon. Sofar Berlin (May 2022).


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