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Side view of Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero
Here we see a Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero that was captured by the Americans and flown across the United States. The large star was added to avoid any unpleasant incidents.
The Mitsubishi Outlander ( Japanese: 三菱・アウトランダー , Mitsubishi Autorandā) is a compact crossover SUV manufactured by Japanese automaker Mitsubishi Motors. It was originally known as the Mitsubishi Airtrek ( Japanese: 三菱・エアトレック , Mitsubishi Eatorekku) when it was introduced in Japan in 2001, and was based on the Mitsubishi ASX concept vehicle exhibited at the 2001 North American International Auto Show. It was sold at Mitsubishi Japan dealership chain called Car Plaza. The ASX (Active Sports Crossover) represented Mitsubishi's approach to the industry wide crossover SUV trend for retaining the all-season and off-road abilities offered by a high ground clearance and four-wheel drive, while still offering car-like levels of emissions, economy, and size. 
The original Airtrek name was chosen to "describe the vehicle's ability to transport its passengers on adventure-packed journeys in a 'free-as-a-bird' manner",  and was "coined from Air and Trek to express the idea of footloose, adventure-filled motoring pleasure."  The Outlander nameplate which replaced it evoked a "feeling of journeying to distant, unexplored lands in search of adventure." 
The second generation of the vehicle was introduced in 2006 and all markets including Japan adopted the Outlander name, although production of the older version continued in parallel. It was built on the company's GS platform, and used various engines developed by Mitsubishi, Volkswagen, and PSA Peugeot Citroën. PSA's Citroën C-Crosser and Peugeot 4007, which were manufactured by Mitsubishi in Japan, are badge engineered versions of the second generation Outlander.  Global sales achieved the 1.5 million unit milestone in October 2016, 15 years after its market launch. 
As part of the third generation line-up, Mitsubishi launched in January 2013 a plug-in hybrid model called Outlander PHEV. As of December 2020 [update] , global sales totaled 270,000 units,  and according to JATO Dynamics, the Outlander PHEV is the world's all-time best selling plug-in hybrid since December 2018.  As of 2019 [update] , Europe is the leading market with over 126,000 units sold through January 2019,   and the Outlander plug-in hybrid listed as Europe's best-selling plug-in hybrid car for five years running, 2015 to 2019. 
|Characteristics||Max Speed |
(km/h at 4,400 m)
|Max altitude |
|Turn time |
|Rate of climb |
|Combat flaps||Take-off flaps||Landing flaps||Air brakes||Arrestor gear|
|Wings (km/h)||Gear (km/h)||Flaps (km/h)||Max Static G|
Survivability and armour
Modifications and economy
The low top speed is a severe issue when stock. Compressor and New Engine greatly help. Having access to new 20 mm belts is helpful as well.
Side view of Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero - History
Mitsubishi A6M Zero-Sen
(Variants/Other Names: See History below)
History: Fast, maneuverable and flown by highly-skilled pilots, the Mitsubishi Zero-Sen was the most famous Japanese plane of World War Two and a big surprise to American forces. Ignored by British and American intelligence services (who had access to design plans for the aircraft years before the war) the "Zero" (it was the Navy Type O carrier-based fighter) was armed with two 20-mm cannon, two 7.7mm machine guns, and possessed the incredible range of 1930 miles using a centerline drop tank. Though outclassed by more powerful US fighters after late 1943, the Zero remained a tough opponent throughout the war.
First flown on 1 April 1939, the A6M1 prototype was powered by a 780-hp Mitsubishi Zuisei radial engine which gave it excellent performance except for its maximum speed, which was below navy specifications. A second prototype, the A6M2, was powered by a 925-hp Nakajima Sakae engine, which was so successful that in July 1940, the type was ordered into production as the Navy Type "0" Carrier Fighter Model 11. Other variants were rapidly introduced, including a two-seat trainer, the A6M2-K a Nakajima-built floatplane version called the A6M2-N a performance-increased version called the A6M5 and several re-engined versions late in the war which culminated in the 1130-hp A6M8.
Pre-production Zeros were used in China from August 1940. This outstanding aircraft could travel at speeds up to 350 mph in level flight (the A6M5 version) and reach 15,000 feet in five minutes. Contrast this with Americas front line fighter, the Grumman F4F Wildcat, which had a top speed was 325 mph, was not as maneuverable, and which had four .50-inch machine guns. No wonder the few Wildcat pilots rising up to defend Pearl Harbor in December, 1941 were surprised!
By late 1944, with most of its aircraft carriers sunk (and its most highly-trained aircrews gone), Japan resorted to desperate measures. These included Kamikaze (divine wind) suicide raids, wherein green pilots would turn their early-model Zeros into aerial bombs for attacks on Allied ships during the battles of Okinawa, Iwo Jima and the Philippines. Truly an ignominious end for one of historys great warbirds.
Only five Zeros are considered to be airworthy today (only one with its original Sakae engine), making them among the rarest and most-prized warbirds on the display circuit today.
Nicknames: Reisen ("Rei Shiko Sentoki" -- Japanese for "Type 0 Fighter") Zeke (Allied reporting name) Zero.
Number Built: 10,500
Number Still Airworthy: Five
[ Zero Pilot Report by John Deakin ]
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Notice : This may be either a product of Mitsubishi or Nakajima, there are minor difference between models produced by each, most notably the engine cowling.
The A6M2 mod.21 is an improvement over the mod.11, with a slightly different cowling and an added folding wing function
Folding Wing :
Several Zero fighters survived the war and are on display in Japan (in Aichi, Tokyo's Yasukuni War Museum, Kure's Yamato Museum, Hamamatsu, MCAS Iwakuni, and Shizuoka), China (in Beijing), the United States (at the National Air and Space Museum, National Museum of the United States Air Force, the National Museum of Naval Aviation , the Pacific Aviation Museum , the San Diego Air and Space Museum), and the UK (RAF Duxford) as well as the Auckland War Memorial Museum in New Zealand. A restored A6M2-21 (V-173 retrieved as a wreck after the war, and later found to have been flown by Saburō Sakai at Lae) is on display at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra. The Museum Dirgantara Mandala in Yogyakarta, Indonesia also has an A6M in its collection.
Another aircraft recovered by the Australian War Memorial Museum in the early 1970s now belongs to Fantasy of Flight in Polk City, Florida. Along with several other Zeros it was found near Rabaul in the South Pacific. The markings suggest that it was in service after June 1943 and further investigation suggests that it has cockpit features conducive to the Nakashima built model 52b. If this is correct, it is most likely one of the 123 aircraft lost by the Japanese during the assault of Rabaul. The aircraft was shipped in pieces to the attraction and it was eventually made up for display as a crashed aircraft. Much of the aircraft is usable for patterns and some of its parts can be restored to one day make this a basis for a flyable aircraft. [ 28 ]
Only three flyable Zero airframes exist two have had their engines replaced with similar American units only one, the Planes of Fame Museum's A6M5 example, bearing tail number "61-120" has the original Sakae engine. [ 29 ]
Although not a survivor, the "Blayd" Zero is a reconstruction based on templating original Zero components recovered from the South Pacific. In order to be considered a "restoration" and not a reproduction, the builders used a small fraction of parts from original Zero landing gear in the reconstruction. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] The aircraft is now on display at the Fargo Air Museum in Fargo, North Dakota.
The Commemorative Air Force's A6M3 was recovered from Babo Airfield, New Guinea, in 1991. It was partially restored from several A6M3s in Russia, then brought to the United States for restoration. The aircraft was re-registered in 1998 and displayed at the Museum of Flying in Santa Monica, California. It currently uses a Pratt & Whitney R1830 engine. [ 32 ]
The rarity of flyable Zeros accounts for the use of single-seat North American T-6 Texans, with heavily modified fuselages and painted in Japanese markings, to stand in for the fighter in the films Tora! Tora! Tora!, The Final Countdown, and many other television and film depictions of the aircraft, such as Baa Baa Black Sheep (renamed Black Sheep Squadron). One Model 52 was used during the production of Pearl Harbor.
Side view of Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero - History
The Mitsubishi A6M2 "Rufe" is a long-range fighter aircraft formerly manufactured by Mitsubishi Aircraft Company.
The Mitsubishi A5M fighter was just entering service in early 1937, when the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) started looking for its eventual replacement. On October 5, 1937, they issued "Planning Requirements for the Prototype 12-shi Carrier-based Fighter", sending it to Nakajima and Mitsubishi. Both firms started preliminary design work while they awaited more definitive requirements to be handed over in a few months.
Based on the experiences of the A5M in China, the IJN sent out updated requirements in October calling for a speed of 270 kn (310 mph 500 km/h) at 4,000 m (13,000 ft) and a climb to 3,000 m (9,800 ft) in 9.5 minutes. With drop tanks, they wanted an endurance of two hours at normal power, or six to eight hours at economical cruising speed. Armament was to consist of two 20 mm cannons, two 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns and two 60 kg (130 lb) bombs. A complete radio set was to be mounted in all aircraft, along with a radio direction finder for long-range navigation. The maneuverability was to be at least equal to that of the A5M, while the wingspan had to be less than 12 m (39 ft) to allow for use on aircraft carriers.
"Your exciting Journey into digital world of aviation starts "
The A6M is usually known as the "Zero" from its Japanese Navy type designation, Type 0 carrier fighter (Rei shiki Kanjō sentōki, 零式艦上戦闘機), taken from the last digit of the Imperial year 2600 (1940) when it entered service. In Japan, it was unofficially referred to as both Rei-sen and Zero-sen Japanese pilots most commonly called it Zero-sen, where sen is the first syllable of sentōki, Japanese for "fighter plane".
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
First flight 1 April 1939
Primary user Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
You are definitely intrigued to discover Nakajima Rufe .
The Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" is a long-range fighter aircraft formerly manufactured by Mitsubishi Aircraft Company, a part of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. The A6M was designated as the Mitsubishi Navy Type 0 carrier fighter (零式艦上戦闘機 rei-shiki-kanjō-sentōki), or the Mitsubishi A6M Rei-sen. The A6M was usually referred to by its pilots as the Reisen (零戦, zero fighter), "0" being the last digit of the imperial year 2600 (1940) when it entered service with the Imperial Navy. The official Allied reporting name was "Zeke", although the use of the name "Zero" (from Type 0) was used colloquially by the Allies as well.
The Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" is a long-range fighter aircraft formerly manufactured by Mitsubishi Aircraft Company
Bandai 1/24 A6M5 Zero: "BLACK BEAUTY - Dressed for a Night Out Over the Homeland"
Before you guys go crazy with thoughts whirling along the lines of " A night fighter ZERO, Absolutely NO WAY!" Just wait and let your mind wonder a bit. I built this nice Zero from the 1/24 scale Ban Dai Kit. According to the profile that exists w/in the kit, there was a zero painted in a black camouflage pattern. Apparently this aircraft flew with the Yokosuka Air Corps and is pictured in " Night Battle Camouflage" I liked it due to it being different from anything I had ever seen. I poked around a bit on J-A and asked a few questions concerning this paint scheme and decided what the heck! My night-fighter version of the zero. Here are a few shots of the construction processes, enjoy.
From the workbench
The photo (above) shows the details of the engine. A person with the skill and patience would have great time enhancing this engine with some scratch building. One may also chose to really add to the armament compartments with some ammo belts and a few extras. I chose to enclose this area on the upper wings. I did however drill out the gun barrels on both the machine guns and the cannons.
Since this kit is 1/24 scale I wanted to limit the usage of decals. This process was not extremely difficult to accomplish. For the Hinomarus I used my OLFA Compass/Cutter to make a stencil. I was very pleased with the outcome. I also masked off the "No Step" area on the wings and sprayed these with Model Masters Red. The only decal I did use was the tail number. I am going to redo that to match the aircraft of the YAC.
Ban Dai did a great job on the interior detail, and I was very pleased with the outcome of the construction process. The parts fit together extremely well, and I was even able to practice my dry brushing skills (THANKS STEVE). I am disappointed that I did not have my DC available when I completed the interior. I would have liked to get a photo of the cockpit before I installed it.
Ban Dai included several neat details that one can choose to do with this kit. The landing gear can be retracted and the cover doors with a bit of fine- tuning look decent. The canopy, like the landing gear is movable to the open or closed position. Yes, the canopy was nice and clear as well as thin. I was impressed. The tail wheel and the arresting hook both retract and have good details as well. The kit also has four bombs, which you may choose to use, but I opted not to. The kit does have a few faults. In the areas that I would think this kit would have the extra details like the seat and the cowling as well as the machine gun and cannon magazines, this model kind of leaves you hanging. The cowling for instance is one piece. A model of this scale should take full advantage of the fact that to be as realistic as possible the two- piece set could have easily been made. But in spite of a the few draw backs the kit has I had a great time building it as well a letting my imagination go a tad bit. I would recommend this kit. I got a great deal on it and I had fun building it. My 8th grade students love it as well!
This article was published on Wednesday, July 20 2011 Last modified on Saturday, May 14 2016
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Tamiya | 1/32 Mitsubishi A6M5 Part 2
The engine is one of the last major sub-assemblies to be added to the model, after the instructions. It goes along steps 37 to 45. It is really complete, including the carburetor area behind the second row of cylinders.
The cylinder rows are beautifully molded in halves. Both pushrods rings are separately molded. The cowling supporting frames are also included, and they are not fake parts like we generally find in many large scale models. They depict accurately the prototype, so you can even leave the cowlings off the model.
You have the choice of open (parts C26 and C11) or closed (parts C3 and C12) cooling flaps. In both cases, they are molded altogether - no boring cementing plate by plate. Once finished, the engine is mounted on the tubular strut ahead the firewall. Take a look on the final result in one of the photos below, showing the magnificent work of modeler Bernard Schrock with this kit.
Engine details: firewall and oil tank, ignition ring, reduction case and carburetor, pushrods.
A splendind work accomplished by modeler Bernard Schrock (photos by him, I guess). Compare with.
. Sakae engine in the Kanoya Naval Aviation History Museum (photo credit unknown).
The propeller comes in a single piece, and you have to add the counter balance weights. The cowling is very well molded in two halves. They just click in place. Tamiya has paid extra attention to the rivet detail here.
Propeller and spinner. Note the control panel on the left.
Both cowling halves test fitted. Note the petite surface details.
Auckland War Memorial Museums A6M3 model 22, showing the cowling fasteners (photo by David Stewart).
The Zero had an array of actuator arms to push/pull the cowling flaps. The photo below shows clearly these arms between the exhaust stacks. Note that, in spite of the separated flaps, and its very convincing thickness, Tamiya´s kit doesn´t bring any part representing the arms. On the other hand, the final appearance of the fuselage vents behind the engine´s accessory part is very convincing.
Note the correct arrangement of the cowling flaps and exhaust stacks in this preserved A6M5 (photo credit unknown).
The landing gear of this kit is a little working marvel, as explained in steps 32-36 of the assembly instructions. Besides the rubber tires and hoses, the main struts are retractable and the suspension is spring loaded. The whole assembly is strongly fixed by metal screws, and cleverly engineered. Tamiya managed to inject the plastic around metal oleos. If carefully removed from the sprues and cleaned, these parts won´t need any paint, I guess. The retraction operation of the main landing gear parts is done by hand, simply pushing the gear leg to the wells. The inner doors are automatically closed by the tires, just like the real thing, as Tamiya beautifully replicated the corresponding armed mechanism (see steps 20-22). The lowering operation, on the other hand, requires the removal of the wing cannon leading edge panel. A provided key is inserted in a slot and turned in order to lower the leg. This avoids your nails scratching the painting to lower the undercarriage.
The retraction of the tail wheel is also done by hand. To lower it, you pull down the arresting hook, insert another key in a slot in there and turn it.
These movable parts are the best I´ve ever seen in a plastic model, but I´m not sure the paint coats will stand the friction on the contact areas. Anyway, I guess a serious modeler won´t be retracting/lowering the landing gear every time.
The wheel bay doors are a bit on the thick side, as well as the ribs in the wheel wells. I found a few ejection pin marks spotted in areas that will be visible after the assembly. Another nice touch are the torque links, which come as separated parts and work like the prototype. The assembly is just a matter of clicking them in place.
The instructions point out where to apply the grease provided in a tube. I don´t think this is a good idea, because it can slowly migrate with time and smear the surrounding painted areas. In addition, the area will be permanently attracting dust.
Landing gear parts. Lots of ejection pin marks
The main wheel parts and the tail wheel strut.
Tail wheel yoke. On the right, the real part from an A6M3-22 in the Auckland War Memorial Museum (photo by David Stewart).
Main landing gear of the A6M5 in the Kanoya Naval Aviation History Museum (photo credit unknown).
Wheel bay of the A6M5 in the Kanoya Naval Aviation History Museum (photo credit unknown).
There are 18 clear parts in sprue F. Canopy components, wings and fuselage lights, gunsight and the "glasses" for the control panel dials. They are crisply molded, and won´t even need the traditional Future bath. The only part that will give some work is the Type 98 optical gun-bombsight. It is a very prominent item in the cockpit and I included a pic below that may be of some help when painting this part.
Clear parts: rear and sliding canopy parts.
Clear parts in detail: Windscreen, control panel glasses and lights.
SOME OTHER DETAILS
There are many other details not mentioned in the text, and of course I won´t mention them all. It is worth to cite the wing and the fuselage armament. They are fairly detailed, but will be mostly hidden anyway. No doubt some detailers will open a panel here and there to add more bits.
The decal sheet is typical of Tamiya. A bit thick but based on previous experiences they will respond well to setting solutions. There are three versions to choose from. All of them pretty much identical in IJN dark green over IJN light gray. Perhaps the only disappointment of the kit.
However, the sheet is very well printed and in perfect register. Note that the control panel instruments are printed reversed (the adhesive side will be visible) to be placed on the back of the clear dials. Pay attention on the printed arrows as they indicate the upper side of each instrument.
Some variations can be found in aftermarket items. Right now I recall Eagle Strike sheet #32018, which brings some more colorful options. The fact is that unless you are planning to model those captured Zeros evaluated by T.A.I.C., or an aircraft in surrender markings, the A6M5 does not share the same wide range of schemes of its previous versions.
A zoom on the decal sheet. Note the "reversed" instrument faces.
I said the kit is almost perfect. Some time ago Ryan Toews has compiled a list of notes on this kit for j-aircraft. I failed to locate the link after j-aircraft was overhauled, but he kindly allowed me quote his observations here (thank you Ryan). The man is really an expert on the subject, and the points below will help you to built an even more authentic replica.
"From what Jim Lansdale has related elsewhere, the Mitsubishi built A6M5s retained an overall paint job of Mitsubishi's variant of semi-gloss Hairyokushoku gray-green FS 6350, albeit possibly no longer applied over are-brown primer. The upper surfaces with subsequently camouflaged with a semi-gloss or matte dark green close to FS 4052. Nakajima also retained a variation of semi-gloss Hairyokushoku similar to FS 4201 on the undersides of the A6M5s it manufactured. The upper surface camouflage this company applied was a semi-gloss or matte dark green with a value of FS 4077. It is presumed that the fabric-covered surfaces were still painted in a mid-gray shade of FS 6314, except of course where the upper surface green paint was to be found. The cowling was painted with a semi-gloss blue-black color on Mitsubishi built planes and a semi-gloss black on Nakajima built ones. The white gun alignment lines on the upper cowling were probably not present on the earlier Mitsubishi built A6M5s such as 9-151.
In the following the numbers refer to the sub-sections in the Tamiya kit instructions: