Letter From President Kennedy to Chairman Khrushchev Washington, April 18, 1961. - History

Letter From President Kennedy to Chairman Khrushchev Washington, April 18, 1961. - History

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Letter From President Kennedy to Chairman KhrushchevWashington, April 18, 1961..

MR. CHAIRMAN: You are under a serious misapprehension in regard to events in Cuba. For months there has been evident and growing resistance to the Castro dictatorship. More than 100,000 refugees have recently fled from Cuba into neighboring countries. Their urgent hope is naturally to assist their fellow Cubans in their struggle for freedom. Many of these refugees fought alongside Dr. Castro against the Batista dictatorship; among them are prominent leaders of his own original movement and government.
These are unmistakable signs that Cubans find intolerable the denial of democratic liberties and the subversion of the 26th of July Movement by an alien-dominated regime. It cannot be surprising that, as resistance within Cuba grows, refugees have been using whatever means are available to return and support their countrymen in the continuing struggle for freedom. Where people are denied the right of choice, recourse to such struggle is the only means of achieving their liberties.
I have previously stated, and I repeat now, that the United States intends no military intervention in Cuba. In the event of any military intervention by outside force we will immediately honor our obligations under the inter-American system to protect this hemisphere against external aggression. While refraining from military intervention in Cuba, the people of the United States do not conceal their admiration for Cuban patriots who wish to see a democratic system in an independent Cuba. The United States government can take no action to stifle the spirit of liberty.
I have taken careful note of your statement that the events in Cuba might affect peace in all parts of the world. I trust that this does not mean that the Soviet government, using the situation in Cuba as a pretext, is planning to inflame other areas of the world. I would like to think that your government has too great a sense of responsibility to embark upon any enterprise so dangerous to general peace.
I agree with you as to the desirability of steps to improve the international atmosphere. I continue to hope that you will cooperate in opportunities now available to this end. A prompt cease-fire and peaceful settlement of the dangerous situation in Laos, cooperation with the United Nations in the Congo and a speedy conclusion of an acceptable treaty for the banning of nuclear tests would be constructive steps in this direction. The regime in Cuba could make a similar contribution by permitting the Cuban people freely to determine their own future by democratic processes and freely to cooperate with their Latin American neighbors.
I believe, Mr. Chairman, that you should recognize that free peoples in all parts of the world do not accept the claim of historical inevitability for Communist revolution. What your government believes is its own business; what it does in the world is the world's business. The great revolution in the history of man, past, present and future, is the revolution of those determined to be free.
John F. Kennedy

Cuban Missile Crisis

I n November 1960, U.S. senator John F. Kennedy (1917– 1963) of Massachusetts defeated Vice President Richard M. Nixon (1913–1994) in the presidential election. Kennedy was taking on a difficult job: U.S. relations with the Soviet Union were declining, and the world seemed to be proceeding deeper into crisis and conflict. A prime example of this was displayed on the evening of October 22, 1962, when Kennedy addressed the nation via television. The president had undisputable evidence that Soviet-built nuclear missiles capable of reaching the United States and many Latin American countries were in place in Cuba, 90 miles (145 kilometers) from the U.S. shoreline.

As noted in the Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, in his televised address, Kennedy said, "Should these offensive military preparations continue … further action will be justified. I have directed the Armed Forces to prepare for any eventualities [possible action].… It shall be the policy of this Nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.… No one can foresee precisely what course it [the retaliation] will take or what costs or casualties will be incurred." In the following decades, especially during the 1990s as Soviet documents became available, records revealed that in late October 1962, the world was indeed at the brink of a nuclear holocaust. The intersection of the careers of a U.S. president and a newly established leader of a small nearby island, Fidel Castro Ruz (1926–), would keep the world's population on the edge of their seats for many days.


The use of the term "presidential transition" to describe the period between a president's election and assumption of office does not appear to have come to general usage until as late as 1948. [7] The term "interregnum" has also been applied to this period of time. [8] For much of U.S. history, they were far less elaborate operations and were carried out without very much advance planning or even cooperation from the outgoing president. [7] Legally, a president-elect is not required to come to the capital until the inauguration and need not have substantial policy or procedural discussions with the outgoing administration.

It was not until the 1950s that much public attention was brought to the idea of presidential transitions. [9] President Harry S. Truman set the stage for modern presidential transitions by offering to provide intelligence briefings to Republican Party candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower and then by inviting President-elect Eisenhower to the White House after his victory in the 1952 election. Eisenhower, smarting from an insult aimed at him by Truman during the campaign ("The general doesn't know any more about politics than a pig knows about Sunday."), declined to receive a direct briefing from Truman before the election. [10] Truman also ordered federal agencies to assist with the transition. Eight years later, John F. Kennedy engaged in extensive transition planning on domestic and foreign policy issues, but did not meet with Eisenhower until December 6, 1960, four weeks after the election. [11]

The Presidential Transition Act of 1963 (Pub.L. 88–277) established the mechanisms to facilitate an orderly and peaceful transition of power, [1] [2] and has been amended numerous times: by the Presidential Transitions Effectiveness Act of 1998 (Pub.L. 100–398), the Presidential Transition Act of 2000 (Pub.L. 106–293 (text) (pdf)), the Pre-Election Presidential Transition Act of 2010 (Pub.L. 111–283 (text) (pdf)), the Presidential Transitions Improvements Act of 2015 (Pub.L. 114–136 (text) (pdf)) and the Presidential Transition Act of 2019.

The Pre-Election Presidential Transition Act of 2010 requires the General Services Administration to provide potential presidential transition teams with office space, facilities, funding for transition staff, and access to government services. [6] [12] [13] For example, spending on Mitt Romney's transition team in 2012 was going to be $8.9 million, all funds appropriated by the federal government. [13]

The Presidential Transition Act of 2019 requires the incumbent president to establish "transition councils" by June of an election year to facilitate a possible handover of power. [14] [15] [16]

The transition process begins as leading presidential contenders forming a transition team to start making preliminary plans for building an administration and assuming the presidency should they be elected. This can take place at any time of the candidate's choosing. In 2008, the presidential campaign of Democratic Party nominee Barack Obama began informally planning for a possible presidential transition several months before Election Day. Obama's transition team, called the "Obama-Biden Transition Project", analysed prior transition efforts, the workings of federal government agencies, and what priority positions needed to be filled by the incoming administration first. [17] In April 2012, before Mitt Romney became the Republican Party nominee, the Romney presidential campaign began planning for a potential transition. Romney's transition team made extensive plans for the transfer of power, called the "Romney Readiness Project", which also included a legislative agenda for the first 200 days of a Romney administration. [18] [19]

During the 2016 presidential election cycle, Donald Trump began assembling his transition team in May, after he became the presumptive Republican nominee. His fall campaign opponent, Hillary Clinton, lagged behind in this regard, not forming a team until August, which was after she became the Democratic nominee. [20] Key activities in this pre-election phase include: setting goals for the transition assembling and organizing the key transition team staff allocating responsibilities among the team and allocating resources and personnel for each core work stream developing an overall management work plan to guide the team through the entire transition process and establishing relationships with Congress, the outgoing administration, General Services Administration, the Office of Government Ethics, the FBI and the Office of Personnel Management to encourage information sharing and to begin the security clearance process for select personnel. [21]

The GSA administrator officially determines the "apparent winner" of a presidential election. If it is not the incumbent president, the winner can access federal agencies and transition funds. [22] To free government funds, the GSA Administrator is required to issue an "ascertainment" letter declaring a non-incumbent candidate the "apparent winner" of an election. The declaration marks the official start of the transition, without which the winning candidate's transition team is not entitled to government funding, secure office space, equipment and access to agencies. [23] [24] [25] The right to the ownership and confidentiality of emails and phone records produced by the transition team is, however, not secure as against the GSA and the government. [26]

There are no firm rules on how the GSA determines the president-elect. Typically, the GSA chief might make the decision after reliable news organizations have declared the winner or following a concession by the loser. [27] The GSA administrator's declaration releases about $9.9 million in transition funds for salary, support, and computer systems allow transition officials to establish government email addresses and receive federal office space and allow the transition team to start work with the Office of Government Ethics on required financial disclosure and conflict-of-interest forms for incoming nominees. [28]

The actual transition phase begins immediately following the presidential election (barring any electoral disputes) when a sitting president is not re-elected or is concluding a second term. In the case of the Obama-Trump transition, on the day after the election, November 9, 2016, outgoing president Barack Obama made a statement from the Rose Garden of the White House in which he announced that he had spoken the previous evening with (apparent election winner) Donald Trump and formally invited him to the White House for discussions to ensure "that there is a successful transition between our presidencies." Obama said he had instructed his staff to "follow the example" of the administration of George W. Bush in 2008, who he said could "not have been more professional or more gracious in making sure we had a smooth transition". [29] This phase of the process lasts between 72 and 78 days, ending on the inauguration day. During this time, the transition team must handle the influx of campaign staff and additional personnel into daily operations and prepare to take over the functions of government. Key activities in this phase include staffing the office of the president-elect deploying agency review teams building out the president-elect's management and policy agendas and schedule and identifying the key talent necessary to execute the new president's priorities. [21]

It is the practice for Cabinet secretaries and high-level political appointees to tender their resignation with effect on the Inauguration Day (January 20) of a new president. The deputy secretaries are also expected to tender their resignation, but are commonly requested to stay on in an acting capacity until the confirmation by the Senate of the new secretary. [ citation needed ]

Presidential transitions have existed in one form or another since 1797, when retiring president George Washington passed the presidency to John Adams, winner of the 1796 United States presidential election. Despite most going smoothly, many have been bumpy and a few verged on catastrophic. [30]

Buchanan–Lincoln Edit

During the 1860–61 transition from James Buchanan to Abraham Lincoln (November 6, 1860 to March 4, 1861), seven states seceded in February. Buchanan held the opinion that states did not have the right to secede, but that it was also illegal for the federal government to go to war to stop them. Buchanan peacefully transferred power to Lincoln on March 4, 1861. The American Civil War began on April 12, 1861, just a month after Lincoln took office.

Grant–Hayes Edit

In the 1876 election to succeed Ulysses S. Grant, there were disputes regarding 20 electoral votes in four states—enough to guarantee a majority for either Rutherford B. Hayes or Samuel J. Tilden—along with multiple allegations of electoral fraud. This made it unclear who would take the president's office on inauguration day. This constitutional crisis was resolved only two days before the scheduled inauguration through the Compromise of 1877 under which federal troops were withdrawn from the South, and the Reconstruction era was brought to an end.

Hoover–Roosevelt Edit

The 1932–33 transition (November 8, 1932 to March 4, 1933) from Herbert Hoover to Franklin D. Roosevelt was during the Great Depression.

After the election, Roosevelt refused Hoover's requests for a meeting to come up with a joint program to stop the crisis and calm investors, claiming it would limit his options, and as this "would guarantee that Roosevelt took the oath of office amid such an atmosphere of crisis that Hoover had become the most hated man in America". [31] During this period, the U.S. economy suffered after thousands of banks failed. [32] The relationship between Hoover and Roosevelt was one of the most strained between presidents: while Hoover had little good to say about his successor, there was little he could do. Roosevelt, however, supposedly could—and did—engage in various spiteful official acts aimed at his predecessor, ranging from dropping him from the White House birthday greetings message list to having Hoover's name struck from the Hoover Dam along the Colorado River border, which would officially be known only as Boulder Dam until 1947.

Clinton–Bush Edit

The 2000–01 transition from Bill Clinton to George W. Bush was shortened by several weeks due to the Florida recount crisis that ended after the Supreme Court handed down its ruling in Bush v. Gore which made Bush the president-elect.

Due to the recount effort and litigation between Bush and his presidential opponent Al Gore leaving the election undecided until December 12, 2000, Bush's official transition was the shortest in United States history, at just 39 days. [33]

Bush–Obama Edit

The 2008–09 transition from Bush to Barack Obama was considered seamless, with Bush granting Obama's request to ask Congress to release $350 billion of bank bailout funds. [34] At the start of his inaugural speech, Obama praised Bush "for his service to our nation, as well as the generosity and co-operation he has shown throughout this transition". [35] The White House website was redesigned and “cut over” at exactly 12:01pm, January 20, 2009. This was described by some as a "new inaugural tradition spawned by the Internet-age". [36] Additionally, the information system was provided to the Obama administration without a single electronic record from the previous administration. Not only were emails and photos removed from the environment at the 12:01pm threshold, data elements like phone numbers of individual offices and upcoming meetings for the senior staff were also removed.

Nonetheless, by April 2012, the Bush administration had transferred electronic records for the presidential components within the Executive Office of the President to the National Archives and Records Administration. Included in these records was more than 80 terabytes of data, more than 200 million emails and 4 million photos. [37]

Obama–Trump Edit

On the evening of November 8, 2016, the day of the presidential election, outgoing president Barack Obama spoke with presumptive winner Donald Trump and formally invited him to the White House for November 10, for discussions to ensure "that there is a successful transition between our presidencies".

Early on November 9, media outlets projected Trump would secure enough votes in the Electoral College to win the presidential election, and Democratic Party nominee Hillary Clinton conceded the election to him later that day. [38] Also on November 9, GSA Administrator Denise Turner Roth [39] issued the "ascertainment letter” to officially designate Trump president-elect, [40] and the transition team was provided office space and were also eligible for government funding for staff. Also on November 9, Trump and Vice President-elect Mike Pence were offered the full President's Daily Brief, with the first briefing taking place on November 15. [41] [42] The Trump transition website was launched on November 9. [43]

The Trump transition team was led by Mike Pence and had six vice-chairs: former transition head Chris Christie, Ben Carson, Newt Gingrich, Michael Flynn, Rudy Giuliani and Jeff Sessions. [44]

Trump–Biden Edit

Incumbent president Donald Trump prematurely claimed victory in the 2020 presidential election on Election Day, November 3 and demanded all further vote counting cease. The president also falsely alleged widespread fraud, corruption and other misconduct, and commenced multiple lawsuits in multiple states seeking a halt to counting, rejection of votes, preventing certification of results, besides other remedies. [45] Trump baselessly claimed that 2.7 million votes were “deleted” by the digital voting system used in some states, and said votes were switched from him to Joe Biden. Officials called the 2020 election the most secure in history and officials from all fifty states refuted claims of fraud. [46] [47]

Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden became generally acknowledged as the president-elect on November 7, 2020. [48] [49] [50] [51] The GSA Administrator, Emily Murphy, a Trump appointee, initially refused to issue the "ascertainment" letter declaring Biden the "apparent winner", on the basis that the election result was disputed. The declaration would mark the official start of the transition: withholding it denied the Biden transition team full funds, secure office space, and access to agencies. [23] [24] [25] (Following the 2016 presidential election, the acting GSA administrator issued the "ascertainment" letter the next day, on November 9, 2016. [40] ) Biden had also been denied daily classified national security briefings. [52] Further, the State Department denied access to communications from foreign leaders, leaving the Biden team to communicate through other unofficial channels. [53] According to CBS News, "In past transitions, the State Department has facilitated the logistics of the calls and provided translation services, possible talking points, and even taken notes". [54]

On November 23, Murphy issued the letter of ascertainment naming Biden as the “apparent winner”, making funds available for him towards the transition, although Trump had still not conceded. [55]

After pro-Trump protesters stormed the U.S. Capitol on January 6, 2021, Trump offered a statement that "My focus now turns to a smooth, orderly and seamless transition of power", although he continued to reiterate his false claims of widespread fraud and irregularities.

President Trump did not attend the Inauguration of Joe Biden, which made him the first president not to attend the inauguration of his elected successor since Andrew Johnson was absent from the first inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant in 1869. Vice President Mike Pence did attend Joe Biden's inauguration. [56] [57]

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Atlanta businessperson Asa Griggs Candler secured rights to the business for a total of about $2,300. Candler would become the Company’s first president, and the first to bring real vision to the business and the brand. Asa G. Candler, a natural born salesman and visionary, transformed Coca-Cola from.

Sam Houston

by the Mexican government. Austin went and was told by Mexico’s president, Gomez Farias, that Texas statehood was impossible. Austin sent word back to Texas to make plans for a state government despite the president’s denial. This letter was intercepted and Austin spent a year and a half in jail. During.

Precis for "Letter from Birmingham Jail

Précis: “Letter from Birmingham Jail”- Martin Luther King Jr. 1. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968), a well renown leader of the civil rights movement, in his defensive letter, “A Letter From Birmingham Jail”, to clergymen, who criticized his cause as civil right movement leader “…unwise and untimely.

Dalia Grybauskaite the President of Lithuania

Economic Affairs Department, headed by Lithuanian Republic Free Trade Agreement with the EU negotiations. 1994 - 1995 m. represented Lithuania as the Chief Negotiator for the Europe Agreement with the EU's Deputy Mission of the Republic of Lithuania to the European Union Extraordinary Envoy and Plenipotentiary.

War and Reconstruction

argument that almost anyone who looked at the intelligence data shared the same opinion about the threat of weapons of mass destruction — former presidents, U.S. congressmen, foreign governments, Iraqi exiles, and numerous intelligence organizations. The prewar speeches of a Jay Rockefeller and Hillary.

Jayadev Kar

yet again through a surprising and courageous (if unsettling) act of kindness toward a stranger in need. However Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “The Scarlet Letter” is considered till today as the greatest symbolic novel in the history of American literature. It is the study of the effects of adultery, a story.

Assacination and Attempt of the U.S. President

decision creating the precedent of Judicial Review. This established the ability of the Judiciary Branch to declare a law unconstitutional.Four U.S. Presidents died from assassination while in office and another six were subject to assassination attempts. Only one, Gerald Ford, was subject to not just one.

Application Letter

Kampung Bum-Bum Peti Surat 642 91308 Semporna Sabah 19 March 2012 The Chief Executive Officer Multimedia Software Intelligence Sdn Bhd Menara MSI Sdn Bhd 138 Jalan Penampang 88400 Kota Kinabalu Sabah Dear Sir APPLICATION FOR THE POST OF PROJECT MANAGER I would like to apply for.

Open Letter to President Joe Biden & First Lady Dr. Jill Biden to Make Quality Higher Education Affordable & Accessible

WASHINGTON, DC, USA, May 12, 2021 / — Congratulations to the President on his inspirational Address to the Joint Sessions of Congress/Future Plans, and the success of three different COVID-19 Vaccines and their expedited distribution in USA.

Thank you very much for your dedication, commitment and accomplishments of the First 100 plus Days of your Presidency. You are probably the only POTUS to have a vast knowledge of our government with significant governing experience. Your 36 years of service in the U.S. Senate, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and as Vice President of the United States for 8 years working closely with former President Barack Obama — all these experiences have prepared you well for the presidency during these difficult and challenging times for USA and the world.

In addition, the First Lady Dr. Jill Biden has all the makings of a “Transformational First Lady” — with her Ph.D. in Education, her many years of teaching experience, and commitment to making Quality Higher Education Affordable and Accessible to all Americans. The First Lady appreciates the importance of making Higher Education available to all Americans, without being burdened by huge debts. A college education should not be a “Debt Sentence for Life” to our young adults.

Mr. President, your recent Address to the Joint Sessions of Congress emphasized your goals for Education, Healthcare/Cancer Research, Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Creation in USA. I truly believe that all of these are interrelated, and you can accomplish all of them during your First-Term Presidency and become the most accomplished President of the past half-century — both in Domestic and International Affairs, while reinvigorating America’s Global Leadership, that had been strained over the last few years.

Your success in the above goals will make it possible to unite all Americans. You may never be able to gain the full support of the Republican Party or Congress, given the emotional divisions that plague our country. There will always be those who practice and profit from “Crony Capitalism” and oppose any progress by merely labeling the “True Capitalism” as Socialism.

True Capitalism frightens those who preach and practice Crony Capitalism, and they will attempt to brand others as Socialists. It is often said that “it is not what you said, but how you said it.” A Republican political consultant wrote a book about this titled, “The Words That Work“.

Therefore, any plan must be made palatable — and I truly believe that you can easily get the support of 10 Republican Senators and 10 Republican Representatives to promote your agenda, in addition to all Democratic/Independent Senators and Representatives, because nearly 70 to 80% of all Americans will agree with your policies.

Having been in the USA for the last half-century, I have witnessed and learned from many great and tragic events. I listened to the inaugural address of the late President John F. Kennedy in 1961, as a high school student in Southern India the loss of Senator George McGovern to President Richard M. Nixon in the 1972 Presidential Election witnessing the Watergate scandal unfold, ultimately leading to the resignation of President Nixon the swearing in of President Gerald R. Ford, and his subsequent pardoning of President Nixon (which may have cost him his re-election in 1976, narrowly to President Jimmy Carter). These and many other events I have seen, lead me to the following belief: Mr. President, you may be the only one who has the opportunity to become the “Transformational President”, since President Barack Obama missed the opportunity to build on his popularity as a Centrist President, and truly unite the country after his 2008 Presidential Election win.

In terms of Education: Please think about renaming the Community Colleges as Regional Colleges of the states they are located in, and make the programs three years, instead of two years long. Expand the number of colleges as part of your Infrastructure/Jobs Economic Plan to revitalize American Global Competitiveness. Any U.S. Citizen who completes 11 years of schooling (also make High School 11 years) can enter their first year of Regional College, tuition-free. Having major corporations contribute significantly to the funding/training of future employees, so that graduates will have the necessary Technical, Science, Mathematical and Integrity skills, similar to Germany, and be well-prepared to enter a university or directly to successful employment. These colleges must be affiliated with local state or private universities so that students can secure full-credit for their education at these universities, after graduating from the Regional Colleges.

Here is a possible plan: USA Citizens will receive 100% Free Tuition during their entire three years, while Permanent Residents will receive 50% reduction of their tuition costs. Others will pay 100%, but can apply for Tuition Scholarships, after the completion of their first year, to be utilized for the second and third years’ tuition costs.

Mr. President, health is wealth! The health of every individual, community, village, town, state, country and the world’s economy, depends on “good health”. Therefore, health must be guarded wisely. As evidenced by the COVID-19 Pandemic’s devastation of the past 18 months globally — costing more than 50 Trillion USD in Global Economic Output, a few million lives lost, and more than 160 million citizens affected/infected by the most contagious disease in more than a century — COVID-19 and its multiple mutations/variants have changed our world, possibly forever. Hundreds of millions have lost jobs globally and their livelihood, with never ending tragedies, with no end in sight.

Education is the most effective way to eliminate poverty, promote global understanding, peace, racial/ethnic/gender equality, and to create a harmonious society. That is why I started, as a division under my Best Cure Foundation, the 3E Organization — Education, Empowerment & Equality — to Promote Women and the Underprivileged. There is an old saying: Give a person a fish, and you feed them for a day. Teach a person to fish, and you feed them for a lifetime.

Excellent Education and Healthcare are the two wings needed by all Americans, and these will solve many of America’s challenges of today: inequality, racial disparity, poverty, early childhood deaths, unemployment, and diseases of various kinds including Obesity, Diabetes, Cancer, Cardiac, Highly Contagious/Infectious diseases.

Mr. President Joe Biden and First Lady Dr. Jill Biden, will you rise to this monumental challenge to unite all Americans — Democrats, Republicans and Independents?

Soviet Ambassador Yudin discusses the 20th Congress of the CPSU with Mao, including Khrushchev's "secret speech" denouncing Stalin and his cult of personality. Mao had already seen a copy and discusses mistakes in Stalin's policy towards China at length.

Minutes of Conversation, Mao Zedong and Ambassador Yudin

Mao Zedong held this conversation with Yudin in the context of the emerging dispute between Beijing and Moscow on establishing a Chinese-Soviet joint submarine flotilla.

Cable, Filippov [Stalin] to Cde. Mao Zedong

Stalin responds to Mao's 11 January telegram rejecting the peace proposal from the Chinese Nationalist Goverment in Nanjing.

Memorandum from Khrushchev to Gomulka Recalling Soviet Advisors

Recalling Soviet military advisers from Poland.

Letter, Secretary Brezhnev to President Carter

Letter, Secretary Brezhnev to President Carter

Letter, President Carter to Secretary Brezhnev

Memorandum of Conversation, Ambassador Dobrynin with Secretary of State Cyrus Vance

Dobrynin, Soviet Ambassador to the United States, records his discussions with US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance about SALT II negotiations.

Cable, Ambassador Dobrynin to the Soviet Foreign Ministry, Meeting with Robert Kennedy

Aleksander Zawadzki’s Notes from the 19-20 October Polish-Soviet Talks

The Soviet-Polish talks at the Belve-dere Palace began at about 11 a.m. on October 19 and ended at 3 a.m. on October 20. The talks included Khrushchev, Mikoyan, Molotov, and Kaganovich on the Soviet side, and Gomulka, with fourteen members of the PUWP Politburo, on the Polish side. Zawadzki made detailed notes and endeavored to include comments made by a wider range of participants on both sides.

Notes from the Completed Discussions of 11 and 12 January 1957 between the Delegates of the Chinese People’s Republic and Poland (Excerpts)

Gomulka describes the 1956 Polish protests and his confrontation with Soviet authorities.

Speech by Professor M. G. K. Menon, Sheriff's Meeting in Memory of Dr. Homi J. Bhabha at University Gardens, Bombay

Speaking at an event to honor the memory of Homi Bhabha, Professor Menon speaks about his influence on nuclear energy development in India and the creation of the Tata Institute for Fundamental Research.

India Department of Atomic Energy, Press Release, 'India and the USSR Sign Protocol for Collaboration in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.

A press release from the Indian Department of Atomic Energy announcing that the Soviet Union would be sending a delegation of scientists to India and summarizes the history of nuclear assistance from the Soviet Union.

India Department of Atomic Energy, Minutes of a Meeting Held August 1, 1964 Regarding the Fourth Five Year Plan Requirements

Minutes from a meeting headed by Homi Bhabha regarding research and development requirements for atomic energy for the department's Fourth Five Year Plan. Includes the budget and research topics for various divisions of nuclear research.

India Department of Atomic Energy, 'Cooperation with USA in the Development of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes'

Packet of material prepared by the Department of Atomic Energy regarding research cooperation with the United States. Includes a letter from Glenn Seaborg, Chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, a letter from Myron B. Kratzer, of the Division of International Affairs, and a draft of the research agreement.

India Department of Atomic Energy, Notification of Appointment of New Members of the Atomic Energy Commission

Details about the appointment of new members to the Indian Atomic Energy Commission.

Letter, H. G. Higgins to Vickram Sarabhai, 'Australian Pugwash Committee'

H. G. Higgins, Chairman of the Australian Pugwash Committee, writes to Professor Sarabhai concerning an upcoming conference on "Scientific, Technical and Industrial Development in South-East Asia."

Letter, John D. Cockcroft, UK Atomic Energy Authority, to Homi Bhabha

John D. Cockcroft of the UK Atomic Energy Authority answers questions from Homi Bhabha regarding nuclear research and includes the text of a lecture he gave regarding the development of nuclear power in the UK.

India Department of Atomic Energy, Note on 'Radiation Applications for the Food Preservation Industry'

Information about research on radiation preservation of perishable foods and disinfection of stored grains at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center.

India Department of Atomic Energy, 'Note on the Development of Fast Breeder Reactor'

Information on research and development work on breeder reactors in India.

Arlington Confederate Monument Report

I am a researcher of the neo-Confederate movement and one of the editors of “Neo-Confederacy: A Critical Introduction” (Univ. of Texas Press, 2008). Neo-Confederacy is a movement that has a broad spectrum of prejudices against African Americans, Unitarians, Muslims, Hispanics, Gays & Lesbians and others. It opposes civil rights. It supports the subordination of women. Beyond that it is against the very ideas that are the foundation of a democratic society is hostile to egalitarianism and, advocates a hierarchical society which they call “ordered liberty” which is largely the liberty to order others around.

Included in this letter are several examples of how the federal government itself, and through its associated agencies, continues to support and enable neo-Confederacy. The Office of the President has the opportunity to end federal government support for, and enablement of, neo-Confederacy.

Unfortunately, to date the Office of the Presidency has actively enabled neo-Confederacy. Besides sending a wreath to a monument of neo-Confederate ideology in Arlington Memorial Park, presidents have attended parties celebrating the birthday of Robert E. Lee, thus normalizing the Confederacy, and former president Bill Clinton wrote three letters of congratulations to the United Daughters of the Confederacy undermining former Illinois U.S. Senator Carol Moseley-Braun’s historic 1993 victory over the UDC and Lost Cause nostalgia.[1]

I ask you to end the federal government’s support and enablement of neo-Confederacy starting by not sending a wreath to the Arlington Confederate monument on Memorial Day or any other day this year or years to come.

Rather than celebrating the Confederacy, the United States of America needs instead a national conversation on the Confederacy, the Civil War, the overthrow of Reconstruction and Neo-Confederacy. With the approach of the Sesquicentennial of the start of The Civil War, 2010 would be an ideal time to begin such a discussion to acknowledge the historical truth about these issues. With a false understanding of the historical past we poison the future. Or as the great W.E.B. Du Bois explained angrily in regards to the upcoming Civil War Centennial celebrations in 1960:

"Thus we train generations of men who do not know the past, or believe a false picture of the past, to have no trustworthy guide for living and to stumble doggedly on, through mistake after mistake, to fatal ends. Our history becomes “lies agreed upon” and stark ignorance guides our future.[2] "

The neo-Confederate organization the Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV) is enabled by the federal government in the following ways:

* They are allowed participation in the Combined Federal Campaign as a recognized charity.

* The SCV is permitted to host events for the United States Army.

* The SCV is allowed to get involved with the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) programs in the high schools.

One of the more notable means whereby the neo-Confederate movement is supported is the designation of the SCV as an eligible charity for the Combined Federal Campaign (CFC) since 2003.[3] As you know the CFC is the rough equivalent of the United Way for federal government employees. Through the CFC the SCV is enabled to raise funds from federal employees.

Involvement in the activities of the United States Army is shown in a 2006 issue of the Confederate Veteran, an official publication of the SCV, which has the following photo caption referring to an activity of a local SCV camp:

"The Colonel James J. Searcy Camp 1923, Columbia, MO, hosted a visit by the US. Army Staff Ride Class to the Centralia, MO, Battlefield and massacre site in connection with their class instruction. More than 40 active NCO members participated. They were all Iraq and Afghanistan veterans."

Above the caption you can see the officers, many of them African American, standing around a Confederate monument with the Confederate battle flag marked on it.[4] Hence, an American that enlists in the U.S. Army might end up attending a neo-Confederate event organized by the SCV. The SCV’s prestige is enhanced by its status as a host of the US Army, the SCV gets to be involved in the class instruction of Army officers, and the SCV is thereby legitimatized with US Army officers.

The SCV seeks to be involved in the Junior Reserve Officer’s Training Corps (JROTC). In the Nov./Dec. 2009 issue of Confederate Veterans the SCV announces in an article that it is going to expand the awarding of the South Carolina Division SCV’s H.L. Hunley JROTC award nation wide so as to reach, as Program Chairman Trip Wilson explains, “�,000 cadets serving in 3,500 JROTC units…” The purpose of this award is to advance the goals of the SCV as Chairman Wilson explains:

"If each year we are able to recognize 500 to 1,000 cadets nationwide and get Sons of Confederate Veterans’ compatriots into high schools presenting the awards, then there is unlimited potential the good it can do in educating our young people and changing the perception of them and their parents have of our organization."[5]

The SCV does have an educational foundation, the Foundation for the Preservation of American Culture, which published a magazine, Southern Mercury, from 2003 to 2008, which ceased publication due to the lack of funds. From this magazine we can assess what type of “educating” and “instruction” the SCV might attempt and see what CFC contributions would help fund.

In an article in a 2003 issue of the Southern Mercury, SCV member Frank Conner argued that the modern Civil Rights movement was an attack on the South. He also asserted that African Americans have lower IQs than whites and that this fact was covered up by a conspiracy of liberals. In a section of the article titled, “The Liberals Create a False Public Image of the Blacks,” Conner wrote:

"Early in the 20th century, the liberals took control of the humanities departments in the colleges and universities of America. Previously, anthropologists had routinely recorded the notable differences in IQ among the races but at Columbia, a liberal cultural anthropologist named Franz Boas now changed all of that. He decreed that there were no differences in IQ among the races, and the only biological differences between the blacks and whites were of superficial nature. The liberals swiftly made it academically suicidal to challenge Boas’ flat assertion. … The liberals were creating a false image of the blacks in America as a highly competent people who were being held back by the prejudiced white Southerners."

In another section of this same article titled, “The Liberals Destroy the Old South in the Name of Black Civil Rights,” Conner asserts that the white South was unfairly vilified by the media during the Civil Rights Era resulting in “the patently unconstitutional Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965” being passed by which he asserts, “The Old South was destroyed, and its belief system and way of life were discredited outside the South.”[6]

Conner’s article is a summary of a section from his book, The South Under Siege (2002). In this section in the book, however, Conner focuses his attacks on Jews, pointing out that Boas was Jewish, and tells his readers that the Civil Rights movement was a Jewish plot against the South. He concludes that “Northern Jewish intellectuals/activists” are the “deadliest” enemies of the South.[7] The book is reviewed in the same issue as Conner’s article with reviewer Ann Rives Zappa recommending it, writing, “The South Under Siege is a masterful volume of work painstakingly researched by author Frank Conner.”[8]

This article by Frank Conner isn’t one outlandish essay that accidentally got published in the Southern Mercury. Rather, it is broadly representative of the contents of the issues of this magazine. Conner’s four other articles in the magazine, including the cover article for the first issue, along with the contributions of other authors, the issues of Southern Mercury form a collection of similar hysterical and extremist articles.

Another example of the SCV’s extremism is an article in a 2008 issue titled, “Republican Party: Red From the Start,” by Alan Stang. This essay argues that the Republican Party was a Marxist conspiracy from its inception. Stang writes:

"In retrospect, it appears because nothing so atrocious had ever happened here, Lee and Jackson did not fully comprehend what they were fighting. Had this really been a “Civil War,” rather than a secession, they would and could have easily seized Washington after Manassas and hanged our first Communist President and the other war criminals."[9]

Another activity of the Southern Mercury, Confederate Veteran and the SCV online store is the promotion and sale of books that defend or whitewash slavery. The very first issue of Southern Mercury in 2003 has a review praising the John C. Perry’s book, "Myths & Realities of American Slavery: The True History of Slavery in America" (2002) in which the enormity of the whipping of slaves is trivialized by book author John C. Perry, who writes:

"Even in my youth, in the middle of the twentieth century, I was whipped, by a switching from my mother and a belt from my father. The old adage, 'spare the rod and spoil the child,' was taken seriously in my home as I was growing up."[10]

The reviewer, Ann Rives Zappa, writes “In this masterful treatment of the subject, the author uses historical data, personal accounts, and statistics to establish facts and debunk myths.”

A 2003 issue of Southern Mercury had a short story titled, “Choosing Slavery in Mississippi Over Freedom in Pennsylvania,” about a slave who preferred to be a slave. Later in the same issue a book reviewer recommends yet another pro-slavery book, "The Myths of American Slavery" by Walter D. Kennedy (2003). The book has a whole chapter titled “Abolitionism Versus Christianity,” in which the abolitionists are held to be anti-Christian heretics and in which Kennedy condemns the Southern Baptist apology for supporting slavery, the Racial Reconciliation Resolution, at their 1995 annual convention, saying “The resolution is nothing more than liberal double-speak for an act of cultural genocide against the South.”[11]

The SCV also sells these two defenses of slavery in its Confederate Veteran magazine, as well as reprints of 19th century defenses of slavery as “Confederate Gifts” and “Classic Southern Gifts.” The SCV also sells these books in their annual merchandise catalogues, and in their online bookstore (

This includes one book titled, “Antebellum Slavery: An Orthodox Christian View,” (2008) by Gary Lee Roper which claims an orthodox Christian defense of slavery. The foreword of the book explains that Antebellum slavery was God’s providential plan to uplift Africans. This book was also promoted by the SCV’s Chaplain Corps in their publication, Chaplain’s Corps Chronicles of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, in which reviewer Michael Andrew Grissom tells the reader “THIS IS A MUST READ!” and “The book makes the point it is ludicrous to apologize (as several states have done recently) to a black population for legal slavery that occurred years ago when presently illegal slavery exists in at least 20 countries of the world including the USA.”[12] Further documentation of SCV extremism can be found on the internet site:

In summary, the SCV promotes a neo-Confederate perspective that challenges American democratic practices, praises and sells extremist and racist books, and offers defenses of slavery. Consequently, in addition to ending the practice of sending a Presidential wreath to the Confederate memorial in Arlington Cemetery on Memorial Day, I ask you to revoke the SCV’s participation as a recognized charity in the Combined Federal Campaign, deny the SCV permission to host events for the United States Army, and prevent the SCV’s future involvement Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) programs in America’s high schools.

The United States and India: A History Through Archives: The Formative Years

Declassified documents are a great vantage point for understanding global governance, current security concerns and the international market. The introduction to the book provides a comprehensive view of world politics. The documents cover not only US-India bilateral relations during the formative years, but US relations with colonial powers as well. The text, as a whole, provides the context of current international relations. These documents were collected from the Presidential Libraries - FDR to Carter, White House Papers, National Security Council, Office of Strategic Services, Central Intelligence Agency, selections from Foreign Relations (Department's Diplomatic Papers, US Agency for International Development, Divisional Reports of the Department of State, and cables from several US embassies.

The documents cover seven topics chronologically: US Foreign Policy US and UK relations US and USSR in the near and far-East Nehru India's Foreign Policy, India & Pakistan and, Aid. The book provides its reader an in-depth documentation of the history of US/India relations based on archival declassified material sourced from the United States.

The volume is the first in a series to provide declassified documents spanning the Franklin Roosevelt - Carter years. Other volumes in the series will explore Indo-China relations Indo-Pak conflicts of 1965 and 1971 Kashmir Nuclear Proliferation, and the Soviet and Chinese influence on Indo-US relations as well.

Principal Secretary of the UNCURK Zouheir Kuzbari updates Chef de Cabinet of the UN C.V. Narasimhan on the ROK National Assembly debates. The debates focused on ROK national security, unification, and US relations.

Letter, UNCURK Principal Secretary Kuzbari to UN Chef de Cabinet Narasimhan, Concerning ROK Political and Security Developments

Principal Secretary of the UNCURK Zouheir Kuzbari informs Chef de Cabinet C.V. Narasimhan on President of the NDP's announcement for 1971 presidential candidacy, DMZ infiltration by North Koreans, and ROK anti-aircraft batteries action against an unidentified plane.

Letter, UNCURK Principal Secretary Kuzbari to UN Chef de Cabinet Narasimhan, Concerning ROK Domestic and Peninsular Affairs

Principal Secretary of the UNCURK Zouheir Kuzbari informs Chef de Cabinet of the UNs C.V. Narasimhan of Chung Hee's policies for rapid, self-sustained economic development and strengthening defense posture, turn over of U.S. force equipment to ROK forces, killing of two North Korean infiltrators, and the nomination of Kim Dae Young for presidency.

Letter, UNCURK Principal Secretary Kuzbari to UN Chef de Cabinet Narasimhan, Concerning Chile's Participation in UNCURK

Principal Secretary of UCURK Zouheir Kuzbari informs Chef de Cabinet of the UNs C.V. Narasimhan on the new Chilean administration's non-participation position on the Commission's work and their establishment of diplomatic relations with Communist regimes.

Letter, UNCURK Principal Secretary Kuzbari to UN Chef de Cabinet Narasimhan, Concerning ROK Security and Political Developments

Principal Secretary of the UNCURK Zouheir Kuzbari informs Chef de Cabinet of the UN C.V. Narasimhan on the recent attacks from North Korean infiltrators, modernization of ROK military forces, and the NDP's critique on the ROK government's infringement on freedoms.

Cable, DPRK Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Statement Concerning Korean Question Discussions

The DPRK Ministry of Foreign Affairs released a statement arguing for the unconditional participation of a DPRK representative in United Nations discussions of the Korean question.

Letter, DPRK Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Concerning DPRK's Rejection of Korean Question Resolution

DPRK Minister of Foreign Affairs Pak Seong-cheol releases a November 19 statement from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The statement conveys the DPRK's rejection of the UN's Korean question resolution, request for the withdrawal of foreign troops, dissolution of UNCURK, and Korean people's self-determined resolution.

Letter, UNCURK Principal Secretary Kuzbari to UN Chef de Cabinet Narasimhan, Concerning the Release of US Army Helicopter Crew Members

Principal Secretay of the UNCURK Zouheir Kuzbari updates Chef de Cabinet of the UN C.V. Narasimhan on ROK officials' reaction to the UN Command's apology statement towards the DPRK, which came amid the DPRK's hold of three US Army helicopter crew members.

Letter, President of the International Human Rights League of Korea Hwal Lee, Concerning Withdrawal of UN Forces from Korea

Chairman of the International Human Rights League of Korea Hwal Lee warns against the withdrawal or reduction of United Nations forces in Korea.

Letter, Anti-Communist League Secretary-General Jose Ma. Hernandez, Concerning North Korean Aggressions

Secretary-General of the World Anti-Communist League Jose Ma. Hernandez raises a call to arms to the Red Cross and United Nations in response to North Korean KAL hijacking and potential biological warfare.

Letter, UNCURK Principal Secretary Kuzbari to UN Chef de Cabinet Narasimhan, Concerning PRC and DPRK Relationship

Principal Secretary of the UNCURK Zouheir Kuzbari writes to Chef de Cabinet of the UN C.V. Narasimhan about the increasingly positive relationship between Chinese officers and government officials and North Korea.

Letter, UNCURK Principal Secretary Kuzbari to UN Chef de Cabinet Narasimhan, Concerning ROK Political Developments

Principal Secretary of the UNCURK Zouheir Kuzbari updates Chef de Cabinet of the UN C.V. Narasimhan on the NDP boycotting National Assembly sessions, Park Chung Hee's economic plan for the 1970s, and Park's commitment to the United States' Asian Policy.

Diplomatic Note of the Afghan Embassy in Sofia

The Afghan embassy in Sofia submits a list of diplomatic personnel who have been dismissed and had their diplomatic passports revoked.

Top Secret Cipher Telegram from Anastas Mikoyan to CPSU Central Committee

Mikoyan reports his recent conversations with US officials following JFK’s assassination. He reports that it is likely that Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon Johnson, will likely maintain Kennedy’s policy on US-Soviet foreign relations. US Ambassador Thompson also talks to Mikoyan about US concerns about the Soviet press coverage of the assassination.

Note on the Conversation between the Romanian Party and Government Delegation led by Ion Gheorghe Maurer and Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev

Note reporting on negative comments made by Khrushchev about Mao Zedong.

Information from Krum Bosev, Charge d’Affairs of the Bulgarian Embassy in Beijing, 'The Chinese Position on the Cambodian Events'

Bosey reports on Chinese policy regarding Cambodia following the March 1970 coup and removal of Prince Norodom Sihanouk.

Top Secret Cipher Telegram from Anatoly Dobrynin to CPSU Central Committee

Dobrynin reports that he met with US Secretary of State, Rusk, and gave him copies of the Soviet embassy’s correspondence with Lee Harvey Oswald.

Memorandum of Conversation between the Romanian Party and Government Delegation Led by Ion Gheorghe Maurer and Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev

Representatives from Romania and the Soviet Union discuss the current industrial and economic situation, as well as foreign relations with China.

Record of Conversation between Polish Premier J. Cyrankiewicz and Chinese Leader Mao Zedong, 8 April 1957

Mao Zedong and Cyrankiewicz discuss industrial planning, international economic cooperation, and the economic situation in each of their respective countries.


Early life (1875–95) Edit

Syngman Rhee was born on 19 February 1875 in the Korean lunisolar calendar (also stated as 26 March 1875) in Daegyeong, a village in Pyeongsan County, Hwanghae Province of Joseon-ruled Korea. [5] [6] [7] [8] Rhee was the third but only surviving son out of three brothers and two sisters (his two older brothers both died in infancy) in a rural family of modest means. [5] Rhee's family traced its lineage back to King Taejong of Joseon, and was a 16th-generation descendant of Grand Prince Yangnyeong. [9]

In 1877, at the age of two-years-old, Rhee and his family moved to Seoul, where he had traditional Confucian education in various seodang in Nakdong ( 낙동 駱洞 ) and Dodong ( 도동 桃洞 ). [10] When Rhee was nine-years-old a smallpox infection rendered him virtually blind until he was cured by Horace Newton Allen, an American medical missionary. [9] Rhee was portrayed as a potential candidate for the gwageo, the traditional Korean civil service examination, but in 1894 reforms abolished the gwageo system, and in April he enrolled in the Pai Chai School ( 배재학당 培材學堂 ), an American Methodist school, where he converted to Christianity. [5] [7] [8] [11] Rhee studied English and sinhakmun ( 신학문 新學問 lit. new subjects). Near the end of 1895, he joined a Hyeopseong (Mutual Friendship) Club ( 협성회 協成會 ) created by Seo Jae-pil, who returned from the United States after his exile following the Gapsin Coup. He worked as the head and the main writer of the newspapers Hyeopseong-hoe Hoebo ( 협성회 회보 協成會會報 lit. Hyeopseong Club Newsletter) and Maeil Shinmun ( 매일신문 每日新聞 lit. The Daily Newspaper), [10] the latter being the first daily newspaper in Korea. [11] During this period, Rhee earned money by teaching the Korean language to Americans. In 1895, Rhee graduated from Pai Chai School. [5]

Independence activities (1896–1904) Edit

Rhee became involved in Anti-Japanese circles after the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, which saw Joseon passed from the Chinese sphere of influence to the Japanese. Rhee was implicated in a plot to take revenge for the assassination of Empress Myeongseong, the wife of King Gojong who was assassinated by Japanese agents however, a female American physician helped him avoid the charges. Rhee acted as one of the forerunners of the Korean independence movement through grassroots organizations such as the Hyeopseong Club and the Independence Club ( 독립협회 獨立協會 ). Rhee organized several protests against corruption and the influences of the Japan and the Russian Empire. [11] As a result, in November 1898, Rhee attained the rank of Uigwan ( 의관 議官 ) in the Imperial Legislature, the Jungchuwon ( 중추원 中樞院 ). [10]

After entering civil service, Rhee was implicated in a plot to remove King Gojong from power through the recruitment of Park Yeong-hyo. As a result, Rhee was imprisoned in the Gyeongmucheong Prison ( 경무청 警務廳 ) in January 1899. [10] Other sources place the year arrested as 1897 and 1898. [5] [7] [8] [11] Rhee attempted to escape on the 20th day of imprisonment but was caught and was sentenced to life imprisonment through the Pyeongniwon ( 평리원 平理院 ). He was imprisoned in the Hanseong Prison ( 한성감옥서 漢城監獄署 ). In prison, Rhee translated and compiled The Sino–Japanese War Record ( 청일전기 淸日戰紀 ), wrote The Spirit of Independence ( 독립정신 獨立精神 ), compiled the New English–Korean Dictionary ( 신영한사전 新英韓辭典 ) and wrote in the Imperial Newspaper ( 제국신문 帝國新聞 ). [10] He was also tortured. [11]

Political activities in the U.S. (1904–10, 1912–45), China and Korea (1910–12) Edit

In 1904, Rhee was released from prison at the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War with the help of Min Young-hwan. [5] In November 1904, with the help of Min Yeong-hwan and Han Gyu-seol ( 한규설 韓圭卨 ), Rhee moved to the United States. In August 1905, Rhee and Yun Byeong-gu ( 윤병구 尹炳求 ) [10] met with the Secretary of State John Hay and U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt at peace talks in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and attempted unsuccessfully to convince the US to help preserve independence for Korea. [12]

Rhee continued to stay in the United States this move has been described as an "exile." [11] He obtained a Bachelor of Arts from George Washington University in 1907, and a Master of Arts from Harvard University in 1908. [5] [9] In 1910, [5] he obtained a PhD from Princeton University [7] [8] with the thesis "Neutrality as influenced by the United States" ( 미국의 영향하에 발달된 국제법상 중립 ). [10]

In August 1910, Rhee returned to Japanese occupied Korea. [10] [note 2] He served as a YMCA coordinator and missionary. [13] [14] In 1912, Rhee was implicated in the 105-Man Incident, [10] and was shortly arrested. [5] However, he fled to the United States in 1912 [7] with M. C. Harris's rationale that Rhee was going to participate in the general meeting of Methodists in Minneapolis as the Korean representative. [10] [note 3]

In the United States, Rhee attempted to convince Woodrow Wilson to help the people involved in the 105-Man Incident, but failed to bring any change. Soon afterwards, he met Park Yong-man, who was in Nebraska at the time. In February 1913, as a consequence of the meeting, he moved to Honolulu, Hawai'i and took over the Han-in Jung-ang Academy ( 한인중앙학원 韓人中央學園 ). [10] In Hawaii, he began to publish the Pacific Ocean Magazine ( 태평양잡지 太平洋雜誌 ). [5] In 1918, he established the Han-in Christian Church ( 한인기독교회 韓人基督敎會 ). During this period, he opposed Park Yong-man's stance on foreign relations of Korea and brought about a split in the community. [10] In December 1918, he was chosen, along with Dr. Henry Chung DeYoung, as a Korean representative to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 by the Korean National Association ( 대한인 국민회 大韓人國民會 ) but they failed to obtain permission to travel to Paris. After giving up travelling to Paris, Rhee held the First Korean Congress ( 한인대표자대회 ) in Philadelphia with Seo Jae-pil to make plans for future political activism concerning Korean independence. [10]

Following the March 1st Movement in March 1919, Rhee discovered that he was appointed to the positions of foreign minister in the Noryeong Provisional Government ( 노령임시정부 露領臨時政府 ), prime minister for the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai, and a position equivalent to President for the Hansung Provisional Government ( 한성임시정부 漢城臨時政府 ). In June, in the acting capacity of the President of the Republic of Korea, he notified the prime ministers and the chairmen of peace conferences of Korea's independence. On 25 August, Rhee established the Korean Commission to America and Europe ( 구미위원부 歐美委員部 ) in Washington, D.C. On 6 September, Rhee discovered that he had been appointed acting president for the Provisional Government in Shanghai. [7] [8] From December 1920 to May 1921, he moved to Shanghai and was the acting president for the Provisional Government. [10]

However, Rhee failed to efficiently act in the capacity of Acting President due to conflicts inside the provisional government in Shanghai. In October 1920, he returned to the US to participate in the Washington Naval Conference. During the conference, he attempted to set the problem of Korean independence as part of the agenda and campaigned for independence but was unsuccessful. [5] [10] In September 1922, he returned to Hawaii to focus on publication, education, and religion. In November 1924, Rhee was appointed the position of President-for-Life in the Korean Comrade Society ( 대한인동지회 大韓人同志會 ). [10]

In March 1925, Rhee was impeached as the president of the Provisional Government in Shanghai over allegations of misuse of power [15] and was removed from office. Nevertheless, he continued to claim the position of President by referring to the Hansung Provisional Government and continued independence activities through the Korean Commission to America and Europe. In the beginning of 1933, he participated in the League of Nations conference in Geneva to bring up the question of Korean independence. [10]

In November 1939, Rhee and his wife left Hawaii for Washington, D.C. [16] He focused on writing the book Japan Inside Out and published it during the summer of 1941. With the attack on Pearl Harbor and the consequent Pacific War, which began in December 1941, Rhee used his position as the chairman of the foreign relations department of the provisional government in Chongqing to convince President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the United States Department of State to approve the existence of the Korean provisional government. As part of this plan, he cooperated with anti-Japan strategies conducted by the U.S. Office of Strategic Services. In 1945, he participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization as the leader of the Korean representatives to request the participation of the Korean provisional government. [10]

Return to Korea and rise to power (1945–48) Edit

After the surrender of Japan on 2 September 1945, [17] Rhee was flown to Tokyo aboard a U.S. military aircraft. [18] Over the objections of the Department of State, the U.S. military government allowed Rhee to return to Korea by providing him with a passport in October 1945, despite the refusal of the Department of State to issue Rhee with a passport. [19] The British historian Max Hastings wrote that there was "at least a measure of corruption in the transaction" as the U.S. OSS agent Preston Goodfellow who provided Rhee with the passport that allowed him to return to Korea was apparently promised by Rhee that if he came to power, he would reward Goodfellow with commercial concessions." [19] Following the independence of Korea and a secret meeting with Douglas MacArthur, Rhee was flown in mid-October 1945 to Seoul aboard MacArthur's personal airplane, The Bataan. [18]

After the return to Korea, he assumed the posts of president of the Independence Promotion Central Committee ( 독립촉성중앙위원회 獨立促成中央協議會 ), chairman of the Korean People's Representative Democratic Legislature ( 대한국민대표민주의원 大韓國民代表民主議院 ), and president of the Headquarters for Unification ( 민족통일총본부 民族統一總本部 ). At this point, he was strongly anti-communist and opposed foreign intervention he opposed Soviet Union and United States' proposal in the Moscow Conference (1945) to establish a trusteeship for Korea and the cooperation between the left-wing (communist) and the right-wing (nationalist) parties. He also refused to join the U.S.–Soviet Cooperation Committee ( 미소공동위원회 美蘇共同委員會 ) as well as the negotiations with the north. [10]

For decades, the Korean independence movement was torn by factionalism and in-fighting, and most of the leaders of the independence movement hated each other as much as they hated the Japanese. Rhee, who had lived for decades in the United States, was a figure known only from afar in Korea, and therefore regarded as a more or less acceptable compromise candidate for the conservative factions. More importantly, Rhee spoke fluent English, whereas none of his rivals did, and therefore he was the Korean politician most trusted and favored by the American occupation government. The British diplomat Roger Makins later recalled, "the American propensity to go for a man rather than a movement — Giraud among the French in 1942, Chiang Kai-shek in China. Americans have always liked the idea of dealing with a foreign leader who can be identified as 'their man'. They are much less comfortable with movements." Makins further added the same was the case with Rhee, as very few Americans were fluent in Korean in the 1940s or knew much about Korea, and it was simply far easier for the American occupation government to deal with Rhee than to try to understand Korea. Rhee was "acerbic, prickly, unpromising" and was regarded by the U.S. State Department, which long had dealings with him as "a dangerous mischief-maker", but the American General John R. Hodge decided that Rhee was the best man for the Americans to back because of his fluent English and his ability to talk with authority to American officers about American subjects. Once it became clear from October 1945 onward that Rhee was the Korean politician most favored by the Americans, other conservative leaders fell in behind him. Hastings wrote, "In an Asian society, where politics are often dominated by an instinctive desire to fall in behind the strongest force, Rhee's backing from the military government was the decisive factor in his rise to power." [19]

When the first U.S.–Soviet Cooperation Committee meeting was concluded without a result, he began to argue in June 1946 that the government of Korea must be established as an independent entity. [10] In the same month, he created a plan based on this idea [5] and moved to Washington, D.C. from December 1946 to April 1947 to lobby support for the plan. During the visit, Harry S. Truman's policies of Containment and the Truman Doctrine, which was announced in March 1947, enforced Rhee's anti-communist ideas. [10]

In November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly recognized Korea's independence and established the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (UNTCOK) through Resolution 112. [20] [21] In May 1948, the South Korean Constitutional Assembly election was held under the oversight of the UNTCOK. [10] He was elected without competition to serve in the South Korean Constitutional Assembly ( 대한민국 제헌국회 大韓民國制憲國會 ) and was consequently selected to be Speaker of the Assembly. Rhee was highly influential in creating the policy stating that the president of South Korea had to be elected by the National Assembly. [5] The 1948 Constitution of the Republic of Korea was adopted on 17 July 1948. [22]

On 20 July 1948, Rhee was elected president of the Republic of Korea [7] [8] [22] in the 1948 South Korean presidential election with 92.3% of the vote the second candidate, Kim Gu, received 6.7% of the vote. [23] On 15 August the Republic of Korea was formally established in South Korea [22] and Rhee was inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Korea. [5] [10] The next month, on 9 September, the north also proclaimed statehood as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Rhee himself had been an independence activist, and his relations with the chinilpa Korean elites who had collaborated with the Japanese were, in the words of the South Korean historian Kyung Moon Hwang, often "contentious", but in the end an understanding was reached in which, in exchange for their support, Rhee would not purge the elites. [24] In particular, the Koreans who had served in the colonial-era National Police, whom the Americans had retained after August 1945, were promised by Rhee that their jobs would not be threatened by him. Upon independence in 1948, 53% of South Korean police officers were men who had served in the National Police during the Japanese occupation. [25]

Political repression Edit

Soon after taking office, Rhee enacted laws that severely curtailed political dissent. There was much controversy between Rhee and his leftist opponents. Allegedly, many of the leftist opponents were arrested and in some cases killed. The most controversial issue has been Kim Gu's assassination. On 26 June 1949, Kim Gu was assassinated by Ahn Doo-hee, who confessed that he assassinated Kim Gu by the order of Kim Chang-ryong. The assassin was described by the British historian Max Hastings as one of Rhee's "creatures". [26] It soon became apparent that Rhee was a dictator. [1] He allowed the internal security force (headed by his right-hand man, Kim Chang-ryong) to detain and torture suspected communists and North Korean agents. His government also oversaw several massacres, including the suppression of the Jeju uprising on Jeju island, of which South Korea's Truth Commission reported 14,373 victims, 86% at the hands of the security forces and 13.9% at the hands of communist rebels, [27] and the Mungyeong Massacre.

By early 1950, Rhee had about 30,000 alleged communists in his jails, and had about 300,000 suspected sympathizers enrolled in an official "re-education" movement called the Bodo League. When the Communist army attacked from the North in June, retreating South Korean forces executed the prisoners, along with several tens of thousands of Bodo League members. [2]

Korean War Edit

Both Rhee and Kim Il-sung wanted to unite the Korean peninsula under their respective governments, but the United States refused to give South Korea any heavy weapons, to ensure that its military could only be used for preserving internal order and self-defense. [28] By contrast, Pyongyang was well equipped with Soviet aircraft, vehicle, and tanks. According to John Merrill, "the war was preceded by a major insurgency in the South and serious clashes along the thirty-eighth parallel," and 100,000 people died in "political disturbances, guerrilla warfare, and border clashes". [29]

At the outbreak of war on 25 June 1950, North Korean troops launched a full-scale invasion of South Korea. All South Korean resistance at the 38th parallel was overwhelmed by the North Korean offensive within a few hours. By 26 June, it was apparent that the Korean People's Army (KPA) would occupy Seoul. Rhee stated, "Every Cabinet member, including myself, will protect the government, and parliament has decided to remain in Seoul. Citizens should not worry and remain in their workplaces." [30] However, Rhee had already left the city with most of his government on 27 June. At midnight on 28 June, the South Korean military destroyed the Han Bridge, thereby preventing thousands of citizens from fleeing. On 28 June, North Korean soldiers occupied Seoul.

During the North Korean occupation of Seoul, Rhee established a temporary government in Busan and created a defensive perimeter along the Naktong Bulge. A series of battles ensued, which would later be known collectively as the Battle of Naktong Bulge. After the Battle of Inchon in September 1950, the North Korean military was routed, and the United Nations (UN)—of whom the largest contingents were the Americans and South Koreans—not only liberated all of South Korea, but overran much of North Korea. In the areas of North Korea taken by the UN forces, elections were supposed to be administered by the United Nations but instead were taken over and administered by the South Koreans. Rhee insisted on Bukjin Tongil – ending war by conquering North Korea, but after the Chinese entered the war in November 1950, the UN forces were thrown into retreat. [3] During this period of crisis, Rhee ordered the December massacres of 1950. Rhee was absolutely committed to reunifying Korea under his leadership and strongly supported MacArthur's call for going all-out against China, even at the risk of provoking a nuclear war with the Soviet Union. [31]

Hastings notes that, during the war, Rhee's official salary was equal to $37.50 (U.S. dollars) per month. Both at the time and since, there has been much speculation about precisely how Rhee managed to live on a salary equivalent to $37.50 per month. The entire Rhee regime was notorious for its corruption, with everyone in the government from the President downwards stealing as much they possibly could from both the public purse and aid from the United States. The Rhee regime engaged in the "worst excesses of corruption," with the soldiers in the Army of the Republic of Korea (ROK) going unpaid for months as their officers embezzled their pay, equipment provided by the United States being sold on the black market, and the size of the ROK army being bloated by hundreds of thousands of "ghost soldiers" who only existed on paper, allowing their officers to steal pay that would have been due had these soldiers actually existed. The problems with low morale experienced by the ROK army were largely due to the corruption of the Rhee regime. The worst scandal during the war—indeed of the entire Rhee government—was the National Defense Corps Incident. Rhee created the National Defense Corps in December 1950, intended to be a paramilitary militia, comprising men not in the military or police who be drafted into the corps for internal security duties. In the months that followed, thousands of National Defense Corps men either starved or froze to death in their unheated barracks, as the men lacked winter uniforms. Even Rhee could not ignore the deaths of so many of the National Defense Corps and ordered an investigation. It was revealed that commander of the National Defense Corps, General Kim Yun Gun, had stolen millions of American dollars that were intended to heat the barracks and feed and clothe the men. General Kim and five other officers were publicly shot at Daegu on 12 August 1951, following their convictions for corruption. [32]

In the spring of 1951, Rhee—who was upset about MacArthur's dismissal by President Truman—lashed out in a press interview against Britain, whom he blamed for MacArthur's sacking. [33] Rhee was absolutely committed to reunifying Korea under his leadership and strongly supported MacArthur's call for going all-out against China, even at the risk of provoking a nuclear war with the Soviet Union. Rhee declared, "The British troops have outlived their welcome in my country." Shortly thereafter, Rhee told an Australian diplomat about the Australian troops fighting for his country, "They are not wanted here any longer. Tell that to your government. The Australian, Canadian, New Zealand and British troops all represent a government which is now sabotaging the brave American effort to liberate fully and unify my unhappy nation." [33]

Rhee was strongly against the armistice negotiations the U.S. entered into in 1953. Accordingly, in April of the same year, he demanded of President Eisenhower a total withdrawal of his troops from the peninsula if an armistice were to be signed, declaring that the ROK would rather fight on its own than negotiate a cease-fire. He also deliberately carried out some actions that would deter the armistice and reignite conflicts in the region, the most provocative one being his unilateral release of 25,000 prisoners of war in June 1953. [4] Such actions, which hindered the progress of armistice talks, upset China and the North. Moreover, for such unpredictability in his authoritarian leadership, the Truman and Eisenhower administrations considered him one of the "rogue allies" in East Asia and engaged in "powerplay", or the construction of asymmetric alliances, which helped the U.S. maximize economic and political influence over the ROK and increase ROK's dependency on the United States. [34]

On 27 July 1953, at last, "one of the 20th century's most vicious and frustrating wars" [35] came to an end with no apparent victor. Ultimately, the armistice agreement was signed by military commanders from China, North Korea and the United Nations Command, led by the U.S. [36] Its signatories did not include the ROK, however, as Rhee refused to agree to the armistice, and neither was it supposed to be a permanent cease-fire, as a peace treaty was never signed.

Re-election Edit

Because of widespread discontent with Rhee's corruption and political repression, it was considered unlikely that Rhee would be re-elected by the National Assembly. To circumvent this, Rhee attempted to amend the constitution to allow him to hold elections for the presidency by direct popular vote. When the Assembly rejected this amendment, Rhee ordered a mass arrest of opposition politicians and then passed the desired amendment in July 1952. During the following presidential election, he received 74% of the vote. [37]

Resignation and exile Edit

After the war ended in July 1953, South Korea struggled to rebuild following nationwide devastation. The country remained at a Third World level of development and was heavily reliant on U.S. aid. [38] Rhee was easily re-elected for what should have been the final time in 1956, since the 1948 constitution limited the president to two consecutive terms. However, soon after being sworn in, he had the legislature amend the constitution to allow the incumbent president to run for an unlimited number of terms, despite protests from the opposition. [39]

In March 1960, the 84-year-old Rhee won his fourth term in office as President. His victory was assured with 100% of the vote after the main opposition candidate, Cho Byeong-ok, died shortly before the 15 March elections. [40] [41]

Rhee wanted his protégé, Lee Ki-poong, elected as Vice President—a separate office under Korean law at that time. When Lee, who was running against Chang Myon (the ambassador to the United States during the Korean War, a member from the opposition Democratic Party) won the vote with a wide margin, the opposition Democratic Party claimed the election was rigged. This triggered anger among segments of the Korean populace on 19 April. When police shot demonstrators in Masan, the student-led April Revolution forced Rhee to resign on 26 April. [40]

On 28 April, a DC-4 belonging to the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), piloted by Captain Harry B. Cockrell Jr. and operated by Civil Air Transport, covertly flew Rhee out of South Korea as protesters converged on the Blue House. [42] During the flight, Rhee and Francesca Donner, his Austrian wife, came up to the cockpit to thank the pilot and crew. Rhee's wife offered the pilot a valuable diamond ring in thanks, which was courteously declined. The former president, his wife, and their adopted son subsequently lived in exile in Honolulu, Hawaii. [43]

Rhee was married to Seungseon Park from 1890 to 1910. Park divorced Rhee shortly after the death of their son Rhee Bong-su in 1908, supposedly because their marriage had no intimacy due to his political activities.

In February 1933, Rhee met Austrian Franziska Donner in Geneva. [44] At the time, Rhee was participating in a League of Nations meeting [44] and Donner was working as an interpreter. [15] In October 1934, they were married [44] in New York City. [15] [45] She also acted as his secretary. [44]

Since his only son died young, Rhee had three adopted children throughout his life. The first adopted son was Rhee Un-soo, yet Rhee ended the adoption in 1949. [46] The second adopted son was Lee Kang-seok, eldest son of Lee Ki-poong, who were descendants of Prince Hyoryeong [47] [48] and therefore distant cousins of Rhee but Lee committed suicide in 1960. [49] [50] After Rhee exiled, Rhee-In-soo, who is a descendant of Prince Yangnyeong just like Rhee, was adopted by him as his heir. [51]

Rhee died of a stroke on 19 July 1965. A week later, his body was returned to Seoul and buried in the Seoul National Cemetery. [52]

Rhee's former Seoul residence, Ihwajang, is currently used for the presidential memorial museum. The Woo-Nam Presidential Preservation Foundation has been set up to honor his legacy. There is also a memorial museum located in Hwajinpo near Kim Il Sung's cottage.

Watch the video: President John F. Kennedy Report to the Nation, Berlin Crisis, 25 July 1961 (May 2022).


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